THE MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPENDIUM
MULTILATERAL / ANTARCTICA AND THE ARTIC
Second Update; pages 280-334

AGREEMENT ON THE CONSERVATION OF AFRICAN-EURASIAN MIGRATORY WATERBIRDS

Done at The Hague 16 June 1995
Entered into force 1 November 1999
Depositary: The Netherlands
Primary source citation: Copy of text provided by the
Secretariat of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species
of Wild Animals

THE CONTRACTING PARTIES,
RECALLING that the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species
of Wild Animals, 1979, encourages international cooperative action to
conserve migratory species;
RECALLING further that the first meeting of the Conference of the
Parties to the Convention, held in Bonn in October 1985, instructed the
Secretariat of the Convention to take appropriate measures to develop
an Agreement on Western Palearctic Anatidae;
CONSIDERING that migratory waterbirds constitute an important part of
the global biological diversity which, in keeping with the spirit of
the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992, and Agenda 21 should be
conserved for the benefit of present and future generations;
AWARE of the economic, social, cultural and recreational benefits
accruing from the taking of certain species of migratory waterbirds and
of the environmental, ecological, genetic, scientific, aesthetic,
recreational, cultural, educational, social and economic values of
waterbirds in general;
CONVINCED that any taking of migratory waterbirds must be conducted on
a sustainable basis, taking into account the conservation status of the
species concerned over their entire range as well as their biological
characteristics;
CONSCIOUS that migratory waterbirds are particularly vulnerable because
they migrate over long distances and are dependent on networks of
wetlands that are
decreasing in extent and becoming degraded through non-sustainable
human activities, as is expressed in the Convention on Wetlands of
International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 1971;
RECOGNIZING the need to take immediate action to stop the decline of
migratory waterbird species and their habitats in the geographic area
of the African-Eurasian waterbird migration systems;
CONVINCED that the conclusion of a multilateral Agreement and its
implementation through coordinated or concerted action will contribute
significantly to the conservation of migratory waterbirds and their
habitats in the most efficient manner, and will have ancillary benefits
for many other species of animals and plants; and
ACKNOWLEDGING that effective implementation of such an Agreement will
require assistance to be provided to some Range States for research,
training and monitoring of migratory waterbird species and their
habitats, for the management of those habitats as well as for the
establishment or improvement of scientific and administrative
institutions for the implementation of this Agreement,
HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:

ARTICLE I
Scope, Definitions and Interpretation
1. The geographic scope of this Agreement is the area of the migration
systems of African-Eurasian waterbirds, as defined in Annex 1 to this
Agreement, hereafter referred to as the "Agreement Area".
2. For the purpose of this Agreement:
(a) "Convention" means the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory
Species of Wild Animals, 1979;

(b) "Convention Secretariat" means the body established under Article
IX of the Convention;

(c) "Waterbirds" means those species of birds that are ecologically
dependent on wetlands for at least part of their annual cycle, have a
range which lies entirely or partly within the Agreement Area and are
listed in Annex 2 to this Agreement;

(d) "Agreement secretariat" means the body established under Article
VI, paragraph 7, subparagraph (b), of this Agreement;

(e) "Parties" means, unless the context otherwise indicates, Parties to
this Agreement; and

(f) "Parties present and voting" means the Parties present and casting
an affirmative or negative vote; those abstaining from voting shall not
be counted amongst the Parties present and voting.
In addition, the terms defined in Article I, subparagraphs 1(a) to (k),
of the Convention shall have the same meaning, mutatis mutandis, in
this Agreement.
3. This Agreement is an AGREEMENT within the meaning of Article IV,
paragraph 3, of the Convention.
4. The annexes to this Agreement form an integral part thereof. Any
reference to the Agreement includes a reference to its annexes.

ARTICLE II
Fundamental Principles
1. Parties shall take co-ordinated measures to maintain migratory
waterbird species in a favourable conservation status or to restore
them to such a status. To this end, they shall apply within the limits
of their national jurisdiction the measures prescribed in Article III,
together with the specific actions determined in the Action Plan
provided for in Article IV, of this Agreement.
2. In implementing the measures prescribed in paragraph 1 above,
Parties should take into account the precautionary principle.

ARTICLE III
General Conservation Measures
1. The Parties shall take measures to conserve migratory waterbirds,
giving special attention to endangered species as well as to those with
an unfavourable conservation status.
2. To this end, the Parties shall:
(a) accord the same strict protection for endangered migratory
waterbird species in the Agreement Area as is provided for under
Article III, paragraphs 4 and 5, of the Convention;

(b) ensure that any use of migratory waterbirds is based on an
assessment of the best available knowledge of their ecology and is
sustainable for the species as well as for the ecological systems that
support them;

(c) identify sites and habitats for migratory waterbirds occurring
within their territory and encourage the protection, management,
rehabilitation and restoration of these sites, in liaison with those
bodies listed in Article IX, paragraphs (a) and (b) of this Agreement,
concerned with habitat conservation;

(d) coordinate their efforts to ensure that a network of suitable
habitats is maintained or, where appropriate, re-established throughout
the entire range of each migratory waterbird species concerned, in
particular where wetlands extend over the area of more than one Party
to this Agreement;

(e) investigate problems that are posed or are likely to be posed by
human activities and endeavour to implement remedial measures,
including habitat rehabilitation and restoration, and compensatory
measures for loss of habitat;

(f) cooperate in emergency situations requiring international concerted
action and in identifying the species of migratory waterbirds which are
the most vulnerable to these situations as well as cooperate in
developing appropriate emergency procedures to provide increased
protection to these species in such situations and in the preparation
of guidelines to assist individual Parties in tackling these
situations;

(g) prohibit the deliberate introduction of non-native waterbird
species into the environment and take all appropriate measures to
prevent the unintentional release of such species if this introduction
or release would prejudice the conservation status of wild flora and
fauna; when non-native waterbird species have already been introduced,
the Parties shall take all appropriate measures to prevent these
species from becoming a potential threat to indigenous species;

(h) initiate or support research into the biology and ecology of
migratory waterbirds including the harmonization of research and
monitoring methods and, where appropriate, the establishment of joint
or cooperative research and monitoring programmes;

(i) analyze their training requirements for, inter alia, migratory
waterbird surveys, monitoring, ringing and wetland management to
identify priority topics and areas for training and cooperate in the
development and provision of appropriate training programmes;

(j) develop and maintain programmes to raise awareness and
understanding of migratory waterbird conservation issues in general and
of the particular objectives and provisions of this Agreement;

(k) exchange information and results from research, monitoring,
conservation and education programmes; and

(l) cooperate with a view to assisting each other to implement this
Agreement, particularly in the areas of research and monitoring.

ARTICLE IV
Action Plan and Conservation Guidelines
1. An Action Plan is appended as Annex 3 to this Agreement. It
specifies actions which the Parties shall undertake in relation to
priority species and issues, under the following headings, consistent
with the general conservation measures specified in Article III of this
Agreement:
(a) species conservation;

(b) habitat conservation;

(c) management of human activities;

(d) research and monitoring;

(e) education and information; and

(f) implementation.
2. The Action Plan shall be reviewed at each ordinary session of the
Meeting of the Parties, taking into account the Conservation
Guidelines.
3. Any amendment to the Action Plan shall be adopted by the Meeting of
the Parties, taking into consideration the provisions of Article III of
this Agreement.
4. The Conservation Guidelines shall be submitted to the Meeting of the
Parties for adoption at its first session, and shall be regularly
reviewed.

ARTICLE V
Implementation and Financing
1. Each Party shall:
(a) designate the Authority or Authorities to implement this Agreement
which shall, inter alia, monitor all activities that may have impact on
the conservation status of those migratory waterbird species of which
the Party is a Range State;

(b) designate a contact point for the other Parties, and communicate
without delay its name and address to the Agreement secretariat to be
circulated forthwith to the other Parties; and

(c) prepare for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties,
beginning with the second session, a report on its implementation of
the Agreement with particular reference to the conservation measures it
has undertaken. The format of such reports shall be determined by the
first session of the Meeting of the Parties and reviewed as may be
necessary at any subsequent session of the Meeting of the Parties. Each
report shall be submitted to the Agreement secretariat not less than
one hundred and twenty days before the ordinary session of the Meeting
of the Parties for which it has been prepared, and copies shall be
circulated forthwith to the other Parties by the Agreement secretariat.
2.
(a) Each Party shall contribute to the budget of the Agreement in
accordance with the United Nations scale of assessment. The
contributions shall be restricted to a maximum of 25 per cent of the
total budget for any Party that is a Range State. No regional economic
integration organization shall be required to contribute more than 2.5
per cent of the administrative costs.

(b) Decisions relating to the budget and any changes to the scale of
assessment that may be found necessary shall be adopted by the Meeting
of the Parties by consensus.
3. The Meeting of the Parties may establish a conservation fund from
voluntary contributions of Parties or from any other source for the
purpose of financing monitoring, research, training and projects
relating to the conservation, including protection and management, of
migratory waterbirds.
4. Parties are encouraged to provide training and technical and
financial support to other Parties on a multilateral or bilateral basis
to assist them in implementing the provisions of this Agreement.

ARTICLE VI
Meeting of the Parties
1. The Meeting of the Parties shall be the decision-making body of this
Agreement.
2. The Depositary shall, in consultation with the Convention
Secretariat, convene a session of the Meeting of the Parties not later
than one year after the date of the entry into force of this Agreement.
Thereafter, the Agreement secretariat shall convene, in consultation
with the Convention Secretariat, ordinary sessions of the Meeting of
the Parties at intervals of not more than three years, unless the
Meeting of the Parties decides otherwise. Where it is possible to do
so, such sessions should be held in conjunction with the ordinary
meetings of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.
3. On the written request of at least one third of the Parties, the
Agreement secretariat shall convene an extraordinary session of the
Meeting of the Parties.
4. The United Nations, its Specialized Agencies, the International
Atomic Energy Agency, any State not a Party to the Agreement, and the
secretariats of international conventions concerned inter alia with the
conservation, including protection and management, of migratory
waterbirds may be represented by observers in sessions of the Meeting
of the Parties. Any agency or body technically qualified in such
conservation matters or in research on migratory waterbirds may also be
represented at sessions of the Meeting of the Parties by observers,
unless at least one third of the Parties present object.
5. Only Parties have the right to vote. Each Party shall have one vote,
but regional economic integration organizations which are Parties to
this Agreement shall, in matters within their competence, exercise
their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their
Member States which are Parties to the Agreement. A regional economic
integration organization shall not exercise its right to vote if its
Member States exercise theirs, and vice versa.
6. Unless provided otherwise in this Agreement, decisions of the
Meeting of the Parties shall be adopted by consensus or, if consensus
cannot be achieved, by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and
voting.
7. At its first session, the Meeting of the Parties shall:
(a) adopt its rules of procedure by consensus;

(b) establish an Agreement secretariat within the Convention
Secretariat to perform the secretariat functions listed in Article VIII
of this Agreement;

(c) establish the Technical Committee provided for in Article VII of
this Agreement;

(d) adopt a format for the reports to be prepared according to Article
V, paragraph 1, subparagraph (c), of this Agreement; and

(e) adopt criteria to define emergency situations which require urgent
conservation measures, and determine the modalities for assigning
responsibility for action to be taken.
8. At each of its ordinary sessions, the Meeting of the Parties shall:
(a) consider actual and potential changes in the conservation status of
migratory waterbirds and the habitats important for their survival, as
well as the factors which may affect them;

(b) review the progress made and any difficulty encountered in the
implementation of this Agreement;

(c) adopt a budget and consider any matters relating to the financial
arrangements for this Agreement;

(d) deal with any matter relating to the Agreement secretariat and the
membership of the Technical Committee;

(e) adopt a report for communication to the Parties to this Agreement
and to the Conference of the Parties of the Convention; and

(f) determine the time and venue of the next session.
9. At any of its sessions, the Meeting of the Parties may:
(a) make recommendations to the Parties as it deems necessary or
appropriate;
(b) adopt specific actions to improve the effectiveness of this
Agreement and, as the case may be, emergency measures as provided for
in Article VII, paragraph 4, of this Agreement;

(c) consider and decide upon proposals to amend this Agreement;

(d) amend the Action Plan in accordance with Article IV, paragraph 3,
of this Agreement;

(e) establish such subsidiary bodies as it deems necessary to assist in
the implementation of this Agreement, in particular for coordination
with bodies established under other international treaties, conventions
and agreements with overlapping geographic and taxonomic coverage; and

(f) decide on any other matter relating to the implementation of this
Agreement.

ARTICLE VII
Technical Committee
1. The Technical Committee shall comprise:
(a) nine experts representing different regions of the Agreement Area,
in accordance with a balanced geographical distribution;

(b) one representative from the International Union for Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), one from the International
Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau (IWRB) and one from the
International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC); and

(c) one expert from each of the following fields: rural economics, game
management, and environmental law.
The procedure for the appointment of the experts, the term of their
appointment and the procedure for designation of the Chairman of the
Technical Committee shall be determined by the Meeting of the Parties.
The Chairman may admit a maximum of four observers from specialized
international inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations.
2. Unless the Meeting of the Parties decides otherwise, meetings of the
Technical Committee shall be convened by the Agreement secretariat in
conjunction with each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties
and at least once between ordinary sessions of the Meeting of the
Parties. 3. The Technical Committee shall:
(a) provide scientific and technical advice and information to the
Meeting of the Parties and, through the Agreement secretariat, to
Parties;

(b) make recommendations to the Meeting of the Parties concerning the
Action Plan, implementation of the Agreement and further research to be
carried out;

(c) prepare for each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties a
report on its activities, which shall be submitted to the Agreement
secretariat not less than one hundred and twenty days before the
session of the Meeting of the Parties, and copies shall be circulated
forthwith by the Agreement secretariat to the Parties; and

(d) carry out any other tasks referred to it by the Meeting of the
Parties.
4. Where in the opinion of the Technical Committee there has arisen an
emergency which requires the adoption of immediate measures to avoid
deterioration of the conservation status of one or more migratory
waterbird species, the Technical Committee may request the Agreement
secretariat to convene urgently a meeting of the Parties concerned.
These Parties shall meet as soon as possible thereafter to establish
rapidly a mechanism to give protection to the species identified as
being subject to particularly adverse threat. Where a recommendation
has been adopted at such a meeting, the Parties concerned shall inform
each other and the Agreement secretariat of measures they have taken to
implement it, or of the reasons why the recommendation could not be
implemented.
5. The Technical Committee may establish such working groups as may be
necessary to deal with specific tasks.

ARTICLE VIII
Agreement Secretariat
The functions of the Agreement secretariat shall be:
(a) to arrange and service the sessions of the Meeting of the Parties
as well as the meetings of the Technical Committee;

(b) to execute the decisions addressed to it by the Meeting of the
Parties;

(c) to promote and coordinate activities under the Agreement, including
the Action Plan, in accordance with decisions of the Meeting of the
Parties;

(d) to liaise with non-Party Range States and to facilitate
coordination between the Parties and with international and national
organizations, the activities of which are directly or indirectly
relevant to the conservation, including protection and management, of
migratory waterbirds;

(e) to gather and evaluate information which will further the
objectives and implementation of the Agreement and to arrange for
appropriate dissemination of such information;

(f) to invite the attention of the Meeting of the Parties to matters
pertaining to the objectives of this Agreement;

(g) to circulate copies of the reports of the Authorities referred to
in Article V, paragraph 1, subparagraph (a), of this Agreement and of
the Technical Committee, along with copies of the reports it must
provide pursuant to paragraph (h) of this Article, to each Party not
less than sixty days before the commencement of each ordinary session
of the Meeting of the Parties;

(h) to prepare, on an annual basis and for each ordinary session of the
Meeting of the Parties, reports on the work of the secretariat and on
the implementation of the Agreement;

(i) to administer the budget for the Agreement and, if established, its
conservation fund;

(j) to provide information for the general public concerning the
Agreement and its objectives; and

(k) to perform such other functions as may be entrusted to it under the
Agreement or by the Meeting of the Parties.

ARTICLE IX
Relations with International Bodies dealing with
Migratory Waterbirds and their Habitats
The Agreement secretariat shall consult:
(a) on a regular basis, the Convention Secretariat and, where
appropriate, the bodies responsible for the secretariat functions under
Agreements concluded pursuant to Article IV, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the
Convention which are relevant to migratory waterbirds, the Convention
on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl
Habitat, 1971, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1973, the African Convention on the
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1968, the Convention on
the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, 1979, and
the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992, with a view to the
Meeting of the Parties cooperating with the Parties to these
conventions on all matters of common interest and, in particular, in
the development and implementation of the Action Plan;

(b) the secretariats of other pertinent conventions and international
instruments in respect of matters of common interest; and

(c) other organizations competent in the field of conservation,
including protection and management, of migratory waterbirds and their
habitats, as well as in the fields of research, education and awareness
raising.

ARTICLE X
Amendment of the Agreement
1. This Agreement may be amended at any ordinary or extraordinary
session of the Meeting of the Parties.
2. Proposals for amendment may be made by any Party.
3. The text of any proposed amendment and the reasons for it shall be
communicated to the Agreement secretariat not less than one hundred and
fifty days before the opening of the session. The Agreement secretariat
shall transmit copies forthwith to the Parties. Any comments on the
text by the Parties shall be communicated to the Agreement secretariat
not less than sixty days before the opening of the session. The
Secretariat shall, as soon as possible after the last day for
submission of comments, communicate to the Parties all comments
submitted by that day.
4. An amendment to the Agreement other than an amendment to its annexes
shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and
voting and shall enter into force for those Parties which have accepted
it on the thirtieth day after the date on which two thirds of the
Parties to the Agreement at the date of the adoption of the amendment
have deposited their instruments of acceptance of the amendment with
the Depositary. For each Party which deposits an instrument of
acceptance after the date on which two thirds of the Parties have
deposited their instruments of acceptance, the amendment shall enter
into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which it deposits its
instrument of acceptance.
5. Any additional annexes and any amendment to an annex shall be
adopted by a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting and
shall enter into force for all Parties on the ninetieth day after the
date of its adoption by the Meeting of the Parties, except for Parties
which have entered a reservation in accordance with paragraph 6 of this
Article.
6. During the period of ninety days provided for in paragraph 5 of this
Article, any Party may by written notification to the Depositary enter
a reservation with respect to an additional annex or an amendment to an
annex. Such reservation may be withdrawn at any time by written
notification to the Depositary, and thereupon the additional annex or
the amendment shall enter into force for that Party on the thirtieth
day after the date of withdrawal of the reservation.

ARTICLE XI
Effect of this Agreement on International
Conventions and Legislation
1. The provisions of this Agreement do not affect the rights and
obligations of any Party deriving from existing international treaties,
conventions or agreements.
2. The provisions of this Agreement shall in no way affect the right of
any Party to maintain or adopt stricter measures for the conservation
of migratory waterbirds and their habitats.

ARTICLE XII
Settlement of Disputes
1. Any dispute which may arise between two or more Parties with respect
to the interpretation or application of the provisions of this
Agreement shall be subject to negotiation between the Parties involved
in the dispute.
2. If the dispute cannot be resolved in accordance with paragraph 1 of
this Article, the Parties may, by mutual consent, submit the dispute to
arbitration, in particular that of the Permanent Court of Arbitration
at The Hague, and the Parties submitting the dispute shall be bound by
the arbitral decision.

ARTICLE XIII
Signature, Ratification, Acceptance, Approval, Accession
1. This Agreement shall be open for signature by any Range State,
whether or not areas under its jurisdiction lie within the Agreement
Area, or regional economic integration organization, at least one
member of which is a Range State, either by:
(a) signature without reservation in respect of ratification,
acceptance or approval; or

(b) signature with reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance
or approval, followed by ratification, acceptance or approval.
2. This Agreement shall remain open for signature at The Hague until
the date of its entry into force.
3. This Agreement shall be open for accession by any Range State or
regional economic integration organization mentioned in paragraph 1
above on and after the date of entry into force of the Agreement.
4. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall
be deposited with the Depositary.

ARTICLE XIV
Entry into Force
1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the first day of the third
month after at least fourteen Range States or regional economic
integration organizations, comprising at least seven from Africa and
seven from Eurasia, have signed without reservation in respect of
ratification, acceptance or approval, or have deposited their
instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval in accordance with
Article XIII of this Agreement.
2. For any Range State or regional economic integration organization
which has:
(a) signed without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance,
or approval;

(b) ratified, accepted, or approved; or

(c) acceded to
this Agreement after the date on which the number of Range States and
regional economic integration organizations necessary to enable entry
into force have signed it without reservation or have ratified,
accepted or approved it, this Agreement shall enter into force on the
first day of the third month following the signature without
reservation, or deposit, by that State or organization, of its
instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

ARTICLE XV
Reservations
The provisions of this Agreement shall not be subject to general
reservations. However, a specific reservation may be entered by any
State or regional economic integration organization on signature
without reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval
or, as the case may be, on depositing its instrument of ratification,
acceptance, approval or accession in respect of any species covered by
the Agreement or any specific provision of the Action plan. Such a
reservation may be withdrawn at any time by the State or regional
economic integration organization which had entered it, by notification
in writing to the Depositary; such a State or organization shall not be
bound by the provisions which are the object of the reservation until
thirty days after the date on which the reservation has been withdrawn.

ARTICLE XVI
Denunciation
Any Party may denounce this Agreement by written notification to the
Depositary at any time. The denunciation shall take effect twelve
months after the date on which the Depositary has received the
notification.

ARTICLE XVII
Depositary
1. The original of this Agreement, in the Arabic, English, French and
Russian languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be
deposited with the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands which
shall be the Depositary. The Depositary shall transmit certified copies
of these versions to all States and regional economic integration
organizations referred to in Article XIII, paragraph 1, of this
Agreement, and to the Agreement secretariat after it has been
established.
2. As soon as this Agreement enters into force, a certified copy
thereof shall be transmitted by the Depositary to the Secretariat of
the United Nations for registration and publication in accordance with
Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
3. The Depositary shall inform all States and regional economic
integration organizations that have signed or acceded to the Agreement,
and the Agreement secretariat, of:
(a) any signature;

(b) any deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or
accession;

(c) the date of entry into force of this Agreement and of any
additional annex as well as of any amendment to the Agreement or to its
annexes;

(d) any reservation with respect to an additional annex or to an
amendment to an annex;

(e) any notification of withdrawal of a reservation; and

(f) any notification of denunciation of the Agreement.
The Depositary shall transmit to all States and regional economic
integration organizations that have signed or acceded to this
Agreement, and to the Agreement secretariat, the text of any
reservation, of any additional annex and of any amendment to the
Agreement or to its annexes.
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized to that
effect, have signed this Agreement.

Annex 1
Definition of the Agreement Area
The boundary of the Agreement area is defined as follows: from the
North Pole south along the 130oW line of longitude to 75oN; thence east
and southeast through Viscount Melville Sound, Prince Regent Inlet, the
Gulf of Boothia, Foxe Basin, Foxe Channel and Hudson Strait to a point
in the northwest Atlantic at 60oN, 60oW; thence southeast through the
northwest Atlantic to a point at 50oN, 30oW; thence south along the
30oW line of longitude to 10oN; thence southeast to the Equator at
20oW; thence south along the 20oW line of longitude to 40oS; thence
east along the 40oS line of latitude to 60oE; thence north along the
60oE line of longitude to 35oN; thence east-northeast on a great circle
to a point in the western Altai at 49oN, 87o27'E; thence northeast on a
great circle to the coast of the Arctic Ocean at 130oE; thence north
along the 130oE line of longitude to the North Pole. The outline of the
Agreement Area is illustrated on the following map.
*Annex 1 a
Map of the Agreement Area


Annex 2
Waterbird Species to which this Agreement Applies

Annex 3
Action Plan

1. Field of Application
1.1 The Action Plan is applicable to the populations of migratory
waterbirds listed in Table 1 to this Annex (hereafter referred to as
"Table 1").
1.2 Table 1 forms an integral part of this Annex. Any reference to this
Action Plan includes a reference to Table 1.
2. Species Conservation
2.1 Legal measures
2.1.1 Parties with populations listed in column A of Table 1 shall
provide protection to those populations listed in accordance with
Article III, paragraph 2(a), of this Agreement. Such Parties shall in
particular and subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below:

(a) prohibit the taking of birds and eggs of those populations
occurring in their territory;

(b) prohibit deliberate disturbance in so far as such disturbance would
be significant for the conservation of the population concerned; and

(c) prohibit the possession or utilization of, and trade in, birds or
eggs of those populations which have been taken in contravention of the
prohibitions laid down pursuant to subparagraph (a) above, as well as
the possession or utilization of, and trade in, any readily
recognizable parts or derivatives of such birds and their eggs.
By way of exception for those populations listed in Categories 2 and 3
in Column A only and which are marked by an asterisk, hunting may
continue on a sustainable use basis where hunting of such populations
is a long-established cultural practice. This sustainable use shall be
conducted within the framework of special provisions of a species
action plan at the appropriate international level.
2.1.2 Parties with populations listed in Table 1 shall regulate the
taking of birds and eggs of all populations listed in column B of Table
1. The object of such legal measures shall be to maintain or contribute
to the restoration of those populations to a favourable conservation
status and to ensure, on the basis of the best available knowledge of
population dynamics, that any taking or other use is sustainable. Such
legal measures, subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below, shall in particular:

(a) prohibit the taking of birds belonging to the populations concerned
during their various stages of reproduction and rearing and during
their return to their breeding grounds if the taking has an
unfavourable impact on the conservation status of the population
concerned;

(b) regulate the modes of taking;

(c) establish limits on taking, where appropriate, and provide adequate
controls to ensure that these limits are observed; and

(d) prohibit the possession or utilization of, and trade in, birds and
eggs of the populations which have been taken in contravention of any
prohibition laid down pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph, as
well as the possession or utilization of, and trade in, any parts of
such birds and their eggs.
2.1.3 Parties may grant exemptions to the prohibitions laid down in
paragraphs 2.1.1 and 2.1.2, irrespective of the provisions of Article
III, paragraph 5, of the Convention, where there is no other
satisfactory solution, for the following purposes:

(a) to prevent serious damage to crops, water and fisheries;

(b) in the interests of air safety or other overriding public
interests;

(c) for the purpose of research and education, of re-establishment and
for the breeding necessary for these purposes;

(d) to permit under strictly supervised conditions, on a selective
basis and to a limited extent, the taking and keeping or other
judicious use of certain birds in small numbers; and

(e) for the purpose of enhancing the propagation or survival of the
populations concerned.
Such exemptions shall be precise as to content and limited in space and
time and shall not operate to the detriment of the populations listed
in Table 1. Parties shall as soon as possible inform the Agreement
secretariat of any exemptions granted pursuant to this provision.
2.2 Single Species Action Plans
2.2.1 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing and
implementing international single species action plans for populations
listed in Category 1 of Column A of Table 1 as a priority and for those
populations listed with an asterisk in Column A of Table 1. The
Agreement secretariat shall coordinate the development, harmonization
and implementation of such plans.
2.2.2 Parties shall prepare and implement national single species
action plans for the populations listed in Column A of Table 1 with a
view to improving their overall conservation status. This action plan
shall include special provisions for those
populations marked with an asterisk. When appropriate, the problem of
accidental killing of birds by hunters as a result of incorrect
identification of the species should be considered.
2.3 Emergency Measures
Parties shall, in close cooperation with each other whenever possible
and relevant, develop and implement emergency measures for populations
listed in Table 1, when exceptionally unfavourable or endangering
conditions occur anywhere in the Agreement Area.
2.4 Re-establishments
Parties shall exercise the greatest care when re-establishing
populations listed in Table 1 into parts of their traditional range
where they no longer exist. They shall endeavour to develop and follow
a detailed re-establishment plan based on appropriate scientific
studies. Re-establishment plans should constitute an integral part of
national and, where appropriate, international single species action
plans. A re-establishment plan should include assessment of the impact
on the environment and shall be made widely available. Parties shall
inform the Agreement secretariat, in advance, of all re-establishment
programme for populations listed in Table 1.
2.5 Introductions
2.5.1 Parties shall, if they consider it necessary, prohibit the
introduction of non-native species of animals and plants which may be
detrimental to the populations listed in Table 1.
2.5.2 Parties shall, if they consider it necessary, require the taking
of appropriate precautions to avoid the accidental escape of captive
birds belonging to non-native species.
2.5.3 Parties shall take measures to the extent feasible and
appropriate, including taking, to ensure that when non-native species
or hybrids thereof have already been introduced into their territory,
those species or their hybrids do not pose a potential hazard to the
populations listed in Table 1.
3. Habitat Conservation
3.1 Habitat Inventories
3.1.1 Parties, in liaison where appropriate with competent
international organizations, shall undertake and publish national
inventories of the habitats within their territory which are important
to the populations listed in Table 1.
3.1.2 Parties shall endeavour, as a matter of priority, to identify all
sites of international or national importance for populations listed in
Table 1.
3.2 Conservation of Areas
3.2.1 Parties shall endeavour to continue establishing protected areas
to conserve habitats important for the populations listed in Table 1,
and to develop and implement management plans for these areas.
3.2.2 Parties shall endeavour to give special protection to those
wetlands which meet internationally accepted criteria of international
importance.
3.2.3 Parties shall endeavour to make wise and sustainable use of all
of the wetlands in their territory. In particular they shall endeavour
to avoid degradation and loss of habitats that support populations
listed in Table 1 through the introduction of appropriate regulations
or standards and control measures. In particular, they shall endeavour
to:

(a) ensure, where practicable, that adequate statutory controls are in
place, relating to the use of agricultural chemicals, pest control
procedures and the disposal of waste water, which are in accordance
with international norms, for the purpose of minimizing their adverse
impacts on the populations listed in Table 1; and

(b) prepare and distribute information materials, in the appropriate
languages, describing such regulations, standards and control measures
in force and their benefits to people and wildlife.
3.2.4 Parties shall endeavour to develop strategies, according to an
ecosystem approach, for the conservation of the habitats of all
populations listed in Table 1, including the habitats of those
populations that are dispersed.
3.3 Rehabilitation and Restoration
Parties shall endeavour to rehabilitate or restore, where feasible and
appropriate, areas which were previously important for the populations
listed in Table 1.
4. Management of Human Activities
4.1 Hunting
4.1.1 Parties shall cooperate to ensure that their hunting legislation
implements the principle of sustainable use as envisaged in this Action
Plan, taking into account the full geographical range of the waterbird
populations concerned and their life history characteristics.
4.1.2 The Agreement secretariat shall be kept informed by the Parties
of their legislation relating to the hunting of populations listed in
Table 1.
4.1.3 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing a reliable and
harmonized system for the collection of harvest data in order to assess
the annual harvest of populations listed in Table 1. They shall provide
the Agreement secretariat with estimates of the total annual take for
each population, when available.
4.1.4 Parties shall endeavour to phase out the use of lead shot for
hunting in wetlands by the year 2000.
4.1.5 Parties shall develop and implement measures to reduce, and as
far as possible eliminate, the use of poisoned baits.
4.1.6 Parties shall develop and implement measures to reduce, and as
far as possible eliminate, illegal taking.
4.1.7 Where appropriate, Parties shall encourage hunters, at local,
national and international levels, to form clubs or organizations to
coordinate their activities and to help ensure sustainability.
4.1.8 Parties shall, where appropriate, promote the requirement of a
proficiency test for hunters, including among other things, bird
identification.
4.2 Eco-tourism
4.2.1 Parties shall encourage, where appropriate but not in the case of
core zones of protected areas, the elaboration of cooperative
programmes between all concerned to develop sensitive and appropriate
eco-tourism at wetlands holding concentrations of populations listed in
Table 1.
4.2.2 Parties, in cooperation with competent international
organisations, shall endeavour to evaluate the costs, benefits and
other consequences that can result from eco-tourism at selected
wetlands with concentrations of populations listed in Table 1. They
shall communicate the results of any such evaluations to the Agreement
secretariat.
4.3 Other Human Activities
4.3.1 Parties shall assess the impact of proposed projects which are
likely to lead to conflicts between populations listed in Table 1 that
are in the areas referred to in paragraph 3.2 and human interests, and
shall make the results of the assessment publicly available.
4.3.2 Parties shall endeavour to gather information on the damage, in
particular to crops, caused by populations listed in Table 1, and
report the results to the Agreement secretariat.
4.3.3 Parties shall cooperate with a view to identifying appropriate
techniques to minimize damage, or to mitigate the effects of damage, in
particular to crops, caused by populations listed in Table 1, drawing
on the experience gained elsewhere in the world.
4.3.4 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing single species
action plans for populations which cause significant damage, in
particular to crops. The Agreement secretariat shall coordinate the
development and harmonization of such plans.
4.3.5 Parties shall, as far as possible, promote high environmental
standards in the planning and construction of structures to minimize
their impact on populations listed in Table 1. They should consider
steps to minimize the impact of structures already in existence where
it becomes evident that they constitute a negative impact for the
populations concerned.
4.3.6 In cases where human disturbance threatens the conservation
status of waterbird populations listed in Table 1, Parties should
endeavour to take measures to limit the level of threat. Appropriate
measures might include, inter alia, the establishment of
disturbance-free zones in protected areas where public access is not
permitted.
5. Research and Monitoring
5.1 Parties shall endeavour to carry out survey work in poorly known
areas, which may hold important concentrations of the populations
listed in Table 1. The results of such surveys shall be disseminated
widely.
5.2 Parties shall endeavour to monitor the populations listed in Table
1. The results of such monitoring shall be published or sent to
appropriate international organizations, to enable reviews of
population status and trends.
5.3 Parties shall cooperate to improve the measurement of bird
population trends as a criterion for describing the status of such
populations.
5.4 Parties shall cooperate with a view to determining the migration
routes of all populations listed in Table 1, using available knowledge
of breeding and non-breeding season distributions and census results,
and by participating in coordinated ringing programmes.
5.5 Parties shall endeavour to initiate and support joint research
projects into the ecology and population dynamics of populations listed
in Table 1 and their habitats, in order to determine their specific
requirements as well as the techniques which are the most appropriate
for their conservation and management.
5.6 Parties shall endeavour to undertake studies on the effects of
wetland loss and degradation and disturbance on the carrying capacity
of wetlands used by the populations listed in Table 1 and on the
migration patterns of such populations.
5.7 Parties shall endeavour to undertake studies on the impact of
hunting and trade on the populations listed in Table 1 and on the
importance of these forms of utilization to the local and national
economy.
5.8 Parties shall endeavour to cooperate with relevant international
organisations and to support research and monitoring projects.
6. Education and information
6.1 Parties shall, where necessary, arrange for training programmes to
ensure that personnel responsible for the implementation of this Action
Plan have an adequate knowledge to implement it effectively.
6.2 Parties shall cooperate with each other and the Agreement
secretariat with a view to developing training programmes and
exchanging resource materials.
6.3 Parties shall endeavour to develop programmes, information
materials and mechanisms to improve the level of awareness of the
general public with regard to the objectives, provisions and contents
of this Action plan. In this regard, particular attention shall be
given to those people living in and around important wetlands, to users
of these wetlands (hunters, fishermen, tourists, etc.) and to local
authorities and other decision makers.
6.4 Parties shall endeavour to undertake specific public awareness
campaigns for the conservation of the populations listed in Table 1.
7. Implementation
7.1 When implementing this Action Plan, Parties shall, when
appropriate, give priority to those populations listed in Column A of
Table 1.
7.2 Where, in the case of populations listed in Table 1, more than one
population of the same species occurs on the territory of a Party, that
Party shall apply conservation measures appropriate to the population
or populations that have the poorest conservation status.
7.3 The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with the Technical
Committee and with the assistance of experts from Range States, shall
coordinate the development of conservation guidelines in accordance
with Article IV, paragraph 4, of this Agreement to assist the Parties
in the implementation of this Action plan. The Agreement secretariat
shall ensure, where possible, coherence with guidelines approved under
other international instruments. These conservation guidelines shall
aim at introducing the principle of sustainable use. They shall cover,
inter alia:
(a) single species action plans;
(b) emergency measures;
(c) preparation of site inventories and habitat management methods;
(d) hunting practices;
(e) trade in waterbirds;
(f) tourism;
(g) reducing crop damage; and
(h) a waterbird monitoring protocol.
7.4 The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with the Technical
Committee and the Parties, shall prepare a series of international
reviews necessary for the implementation of this Action Plan,
including:
(a) reports on the status and trends of populations;
(b) gaps in information from surveys;
(c) the networks of sites used by each population, including reviews of
the protection status of each site as well as of the management
measures taken in each case;
(d) pertinent hunting and trade legislation in each country relating to
the species listed in Annex 2 to this Agreement;
(e) the stage of preparation and implementation of single species
action plans;
(f) re-establishment projects; and
(g) the status of introduced non-native waterbird species and hybrids
thereof.
7.5 The Agreement secretariat shall endeavour to ensure that the
reviews mentioned in paragraph 7.4 are updated at intervals of not more
than three years.
7.6 The Technical Committee shall assess the guidelines and reviews
prepared under paragraphs 7.3 and 7.4, and shall formulate draft
recommendations and resolutions relating to their development, content
and implementation for consideration at sessions of the Meeting of the
Parties.
7.7 The Agreement secretariat shall regularly undertake a review of
potential mechanisms for providing additional resources (funds and
technical assistance) for the implementation of this Action Plan, and
shall make a report to each ordinary session of the Meeting of the
Parties.

Table 1
Status of the Populations of Migratory Waterbirds
KEY TO CLASSIFICATION
The following key to Table 1 is a basis for implementation of the
Action Plan:
Column A
Category 1: (a) Species which are included in Appendix
I to the Convention;
(b) Species which are listed as threatened
in the 1994 IUCN Red List of
Threatened Animals (Groombridge 1993);
or
(c) Populations which number less than
around 10,000 individuals.

Category 2: Populations numbering between around 10,000 and
around 25,000 individuals.

Category 3: Populations numbering between around 25,000 and
around 100,000 individuals and considered to be at
risk as a result of:

(a) concentration onto a small number of
sites at any stage of their annual
cycle;
(b) dependence on a habitat type which is
under severe threat;
(c) showing significant long-term decline;
or
(d) showing extreme fluctuations in
population size or trend.

For species listed in Categories 2 and 3, above, see paragraph 2.1.1 of
this Annex.

Column B
Category 1: Populations numbering between around 25,000 and
around 100,000 individuals and which do not fulfil
the conditions in respect of Column A, as described
above.

Category 2: Populations numbering more than around 100,000
individuals and considered to be in need of special
attention as a result of:

(a) concentration onto a small number of
sites at any stage of their annual
cycle;
(b) dependence on a habitat type which is
under severe threat;
(c) showing significant long-term decline;
or
(d) showing large fluctuations in
population size or trend.

Column C
Category 1: Populations numbering more than around 100,000
individuals which could significantly benefit from
international cooperation and which do not fulfil
the conditions in respect of either Column A or B,
above.

REVIEW
This Table shall be:

(a) reviewed regularly by the Technical Committee in
accordance with Article VII, paragraph 3(b), of this
Agreement; and
(b) amended as necessary by the Meeting of the Parties,
in accordance with Article VI, paragraph 9(d) of
this Agreement, in light of the conclusions of such
reviews.

KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

bre: breeding
win: wintering
N: Northern
E: Eastern
S: Southern
W: Western
NE: Northeastern
NW: Northwestern
SE: Southeastern
SW: Southwestern
( ): Population status unknown. Conservation status
estimated.
*: See paragraph 2.1.1

NOTES
1. The population data used to compile Table 1 as far
as possible corresponds to the number of individuals
in the potential breeding stock in the Agreement
Area. The status is based on the best available
published population estimates.
2. Suffixes (bre) or (win) in population listings are
solely aids to population identification. They do
not indicate seasonal restrictions to actions in
respect of these populations under this Agreement
and Action plan.

 
Gavia stellata       
 Northwestern Europe (win)    2c   
 Caspian, B Sea & E Med (win)    -1  
Gavia arctica arctica       
 Western Siberia/Europe    2c   
Gavia arctica suschkini       
 Central Siberia/Caspian      -1
Gavia immer       
 Europe (win)  1c     
Gavia adamsii       
 Northern Europe (win)  -2    
Podiceps grisegena grisegena       
 Northwestern Europe (win)    1  
 Black Sea & Med (win)    -1  
 Caspian (win)  2    
Podiceps auritus auritus       
 NW Europe (large billed)  1c     
 NE Europe (small billed)    1  
 Caspian & South Asia (win)  2    
Pelecanus onocrotalus       
 Europe & Western Asia (bre)  1a 3c     
Pelecanus crispus       
 Black Sea & Mediterranean (win)  1a 1b 1c     
 SW Asia & S Asia (win)  1a 1b 2     
Phalacrocorax pygmaeus       
 Black Sea & Mediterranean  2    
 Southwestern Asia    1  
Phalacrocorax nigrogularis       
 Gulf & Arabian Sea    2a (2c)   
Egretta vinaceigula       
 Southern Africa  1b 1c     
Ardea purpurea purpurea       
 Western Mediterranean (bre)  2    
 E Europe & SW Asia (bre)    (2c)   
Casmerodius albus albus       
 Black Sea & Med (win)  2    
 Southwestern Asia (win)    -1  
Ardeola idae       
 Madagascar & Aldabra (bre)  1c     
Ardeola rufiventris       
 Tropical E & S Africa    -1  
Ixobrychus minutus minutus       
 Europe & Northern Africa (bre)    2c   
 West & Southwest Asia (bre)    -1  
Ixobrychus sturmii       
 Subsaharan Africa    -1  
Botaurus stellaris stellaris       
 Europe (bre)  3c     
 Southwestern Asia (win)  2    
Mycteria ibis       
 Subsaharan Africa    1  
Ciconia nigra       
 SW Europe/Western Africa  1c     
 Central & Eastern Europe (bre)  2    
Ciconia episcopus microscelis       
 Tropical Africa    1  
Ciconia ciconia ciconia       
 Southern Africa  1c     
 Iberia & NW Africa (bre)  3b     
 Central & Eastern Europe (bre)    2c   
 Southwestern Asia (win)  3b     
 Central & SE Europe (bre)  2    
Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus       
 Subsaharan Africa (bre)      -1
 Black Sea & Med/W Africa  [3c]  1  
 Southwestern Asia/E Africa  2*  [1]   
Geronticus eremita       
 Morocco  1a 1b 1c     
 Southwestern Asia  1a 1b 1c     
Threskiornis aethiopicus aethiopicus       
 Subsaharan Africa      1
 Iraq & Iran  1c     
Platalea leucorodia leucorodia       
 Eastern Atlantic  1c     
 Central & SE Europe (bre)  2    
Platalea leucorodia archeri       
 Red Sea  1c     
Platalea leucorodia major       
 SW & S Asia (win)  2    
Platalea alba       
 Subsaharan Africa  2*     
Phoenicopterus ruber roseus       
 Western Africa  3a     
 Eastern Africa  3a 3c     
 Southern Africa  3a 3c     
 Western Mediterranean  3a     
 Eastern Med, SW & S Asia    2a   
Phoenicopterus minor       
 Western Africa  2    
 Eastern Africa    2a 2c   
 Southern Africa  3a 3c     
Dendrocygna bicolor       
 Western Africa      -1
 Eastern & Southern Africa      -1
Dendrocygna viduata       
 Western Africa      1
 Eastern & Southern Africa      1
Thalassornis leuconotus leuconotus       
 Western Africa  1c     
 Eastern & Southern Africa  2*     
Oxyura leucocephala       
 Western Mediterranean  1a 1b 1c     
 Algeria & Tunisia  1a 1b 1c     
 E Med, Turkey & SW Asia  1a 1b 2     
Cygnus olor       
 NW Mainland & Central Europe    2d   
 Black Sea    1  
 W & Central Asia/Caspian    2a 2d   
Cygnus cygnus       
 Iceland/UK & Ireland  2    
 NW Mainland Europe    1  
 N Europe & W Sib/B Sea & E Med  2    
 W & Cent Siberia/Caspian  2    
Cygnus columbianus bewickii       
 W Siberia & NE Europe/NW Europe    1  
 Northern Siberia/Caspian  1c     
Anser brachyrhynchus       
 E Greenland & Iceland/UK    2a   
 Svalbard/NW Europe    1  
Anser fabalis fabalis       
 W Sib & NE Europe/NW Europe    1  
Anser fabalis rossicus       
 W & C Siberia/NE & SW Europe      -1
Anser albifrons albifrons       
 NW Sib & NE Europe/NW Europe      1
 W Siberia/Central Europe  3c*     
 W Siberia/Black Sea & Turkey      1
 N Siberia/Caspian & Iraq  2    
Anser albifrons flavirostris       
 Greenland/Ireland & UK  3a*     
Anser erythropus       
 N Europe & W Sib/B Sea & Caspian  1a 1b 2     
Anser anser anser       
 Iceland/UK & Ireland    1  
 NW Europe/SW Europe      1
 Central Europe/N Africa  2*     
Anser anser rubrirostris       
 Black Sea & Turkey    1  
 W Siberia/Caspian & Iraq      1
Branta leucopsis       
  E Greenland/Scotland & Ireland    1  
  Svalbard/SW Scotland  2    
  Russia/Germany & Netherlands      1
Branta bernicla bernicla       
  W Siberia/W Europe    2b   
Branta bernicla hrota       
  Svalbard/Denmark & UK  1c     
  Canada/Ireland  2    
Branta ruficollis       
  N Siberia/Black Sea & Caspian  1a 1b 3a     
Alopochen aegyptiacus       
  Western Africa  2    
  Eastern & Southern Africa      -1
Tadorna ferruginea       
  Northwestern Africa  1c     
  E Med & Black Sea/NE Africa  2    
  W Asia & Caspian/Iran & Iraq    1  
Tadorna cana       
  Southern Africa    1  
Tadorna tadorna       
  Northwestern Europe    2a   
  Black Sea & Mediterranean    1  
  W Asia/Caspian & Middle East    1  
Plectropterus gambensis gambensis       
  Western Africa  3c     
  Eastern Africa      1
Plectropterus gambensis niger       
  Southern Africa    1  
Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos       
  Western Africa    1  
  Southern & Eastern Africa      1
Nettapus auritus       
  Western Africa  2    
  Southern & Eastern Africa      -1
Anas penelope       
  W Sib & NE Europe/NW Europe      1
  W Sib & NE Europe/B Sea & Med    2c   
  W Sib/SW Asia & NE Africa    2c   
Anas strepera strepera       
  Northwestern Europe    1  
  NE Europe/Black Sea & Med    2c   
  W Sib/SW Asia & NE Africa      -1
Anas crecca crecca       
  Northwestern Europe      1
  W Sib & NE Europe/B Sea & Med      1
  W Sib/SW Asia & NE Africa    2c   
Anas capensis       
  E Africa to Western Africa  2    
  Southern Africa      1
Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos       
  Northwestern Europe      1
  N Europe/Western Mediterranean      1
  E Europe/Black Sea & E Med    2c   
  Western Siberia/SW Asia      -1
Anas undulata undulata       
  Southern Africa      1
Anas acuta       
  Northwestern Europe    1  
  W Sib, NE & E Eur/S Eur & W Afr    2c   
  W Siberia/SW Asia & E Africa      -1
Anas erythrorhyncha       
  Southern Africa      1
  Eastern Africa      1
  Madagascar  2    
Anas hottentota       
  Western Africa  1c     
  Eastern Africa      1
  Southern Africa    1  
Anas querquedula       
  W Siberia & Europe/W Africa    2c   
  W Sib/SW Asia, NE & E Africa      -1
Anas clypeata       
  NW & Central Europe (win)    1  
  W Sib, NE & E Eur/S Eur & W Afr    (2c)   
  W Sib/SW Asia, NE & E Africa    2c   
Marmaronetta angustirostris       
  W Mediterranean/W Africa  1a 1b 1c     
  Eastern Mediterranean  1a 1b 1c     
  Southwestern Asia  1a 1b 2     
Netta rufina       
  SW & Cent Europe/W Med  2*     
  Black Sea & E Mediterranean  3c     
  Western & Central Asia/SW Asia      1
Netta erythrophthalma brunnea       
  Southern & Eastern Africa      -1
Aythya ferina       
  NE Europe/NW Europe    2c   
  Cent & NE Europe/B Sea & Med    2c   
  Western Siberia/SW Asia    (2c)   
Aythya nyroca       
  W Mediterranean/W Africa  1a 1b 1c     
  E Europe/E Med & Africa  1a 1b 3c     
  W Asia/SW Asia & NE Africa  1a 1b 1c     
Aythya fuligula       
  Northwestern Europe (win)      1
  Cent Europe, B Sea & Med (win)      1
  W Sib/SW Asia & NE Africa      -1
Aythya marila marila       
  Northern Europe/Western Europe      1
  W Siberia/B Sea & Caspian      1
Somateria mollissima mollissima       
  Baltic, Denmark & Netherlands      1
  Norway & Russia      1
Somateria mollissima islandica       
  Svalbard & Franz Joseph (bre)    1  
Somateria spectabilis       
  E Greenland, NE Europe & W Sib      1
Polysticta stelleri       
  Western Siberia/NE Europe  1a 1b  1  
Clangula hyemalis       
  Iceland & Greenland      1
  Western Siberia/North Europe      1
Melanitta nigra nigra       
  W Sib & N Eur/W Eur & NW Africa    2a   
Melanitta fusca fusca       
  W Siberia & N Europe/NW Europe    2a   
  Black Sea & Caspian  1c     
Bucephala clangula clangula       
  NW & Central Europe (win)      1
  NE Europe/Adriatic    1  
  W Siberia & NE Europe/Black Sea  2    
  Western Siberia/Caspian  2    
Mergellus albellus       
  NW & Central Europe (win)  3a     
  NE Europe/Black Sea & E Med    1  
  Western Siberia/SW Asia    1  
Mergus serrator serrator       
  NW & Central Europe (win)      1
  NE Europe/Black Sea & Med    1  
  Western Siberia/SW & Cent Asia  1c     
Mergus merganser merganser       
  NW & Central Europe (win)      1
  NE Europe/Black Sea  1c     
  Western Siberia/Caspian  2    
Grus leucogeranus       
  Iran (win)  1a 1b 1c     
Grus virgo1       
  Black Sea (bre)  1c     
  Turkey (bre)  1c     
  Kalmykia (bre)    1  
Grus paradisea       
  Extreme Southern Africa  1b 2     
Grus carunculatus       
  Northernmost Southern Africa  1b 2     
Grus grus       
  Northwest Europe (bre)    1  
  NE & Central Europe (bre)    1  
  Black Sea & E Med (win)  3c     
  Black Sea & Turkey (bre)  1c     
  Southwest Asia (win)  3c     
Sarothrura boehmi       
  Central Africa  (3b)     
Porzana parva parva       
  Western Eurasia/Africa    2c   
Porzana pusilla intermedia       
  Europe (bre)  2    
Porzana porzana       
  Europe/Africa    2c   
Aenigmatolimnas marginalis       
  Subsaharan Africa    (2b)   
Fulica atra atra       
  Black Sea & Med (win)      1
Dromas ardeola       
  NW Indian Ocean, Red Sea & Gulf  3a     
Himantopus himantopus himantopus       
  Subsaharan Africa (bre)      -1
  Western Mediterranean (bre)    1  
  B Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)    1  
  Southwestern Asia (win)  2    
Recurvirostra avosetta       
  Southern Africa (bre)  2    
  Eastern Africa (bre)    -1  
  W Europe & W Med (bre)    1  
  B Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)  (3c)     
  W & SW Asia/Eastern Africa  2    
Glareola pratincola pratincola       
  Western Mediterranean (bre)  2    
  B Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)  2    
  Southwestern Asia (bre)    -1  
Glareola nordmanni       
  W & Cent Asia/E & S Africa    2b 2c   
Pluvialis apricaria       
  Iceland & Faroes/E Atlantic      1
  N Europe/W Europe & NW Africa      1
  UK, Ireland, DK & Ger (bre)  3c*     
  Western Siberia (bre)    -1  
Pluvialis squatarola       
  Eastern Atlantic (win)      1
  SW Asia & Eastern Africa (win)    1  
Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula       
  Europe & Northern Africa (win)    1  
  Western Africa (win)      -1
Charadrius hiaticula tundrae       
  SW Asia, Eastern & Southern Africa (win)      -1
Charadrius dubius curonicus       
  Europe/Western Africa      1
  West & SW Asia/Eastern Africa      -1
Charadrius pecuarius pecuarius       
  Subsaharan Africa      -1
Charadrius tricollaris tricollaris       
  Southern & Eastern Africa      -1
Charadrius forbesi       
  Western & Central Africa    -1  
Charadrius pallidus pallidus       
  Southern Africa  1c     
Charadrius pallidus venustus       
  Eastern Africa  (2c)     
Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus       
  Eastern Atlantic  3c     
  Black Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)  3c     
  SW Asia & NE Africa (win)      -1
Charadrius marginatus tenellus       
  Southern & Eastern Africa    -1  
Charadrius marginatus mechowi       
  West central Africa    -1  
Charadrius mongolus pamirensis       
  SW Asia & Eastern Africa (win)    -1  
Charadrius leschenaultii columbinus       
  B Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)  1c     
Charadrius leschenaultii crassirostris       
  SW Asia & Eastern Africa (win)    -1  
Charadrius asiaticus       
  Western Asia/E & S Africa  3c     
Eudromias morinellus       
  Europe (bre)    2c   
  Asia (bre)    -1  
Vanellus vanellus       
  Europe (bre)    2c   
  Western Asia (bre)      -1
Vanellus spinosus       
  Black Sea & Mediterranean (bre)    1  
Vanellus albiceps       
  Western & Central Africa    -1  
Vanellus senegallus senegallus       
  Western Africa    -1  
Vanellus senegallus solitaneus       
  Southwestern Africa    -1  
Vanellus senegallus lateralis       
  Eastern & Southeastern Africa    -1  
Vanellus lugubris       
  SW West Africa, & Cent & E Africa    -1  
Vanellus melanopterus minor       
  Southern Africa    -1  
Vanellus coronatus coronatus       
  Eastern Africa      -1
  Central Africa    -1  
Vanellus coronatus xerophilus       
  Southwest Africa    -1  
Vanellus superciliosus       
  Western & Central Africa  -2    
Vanellus gregarius2       
  Western Asia/NE Africa  1a 1b 1c     
Vanellus leucurus       
  SW Asia & NE Africa (win)    1  
Gallinago media       
  Scandinavia (bre)    1  
  W Siberia & NE Europe (bre)    2c   
Gallinago gallinago gallinago       
  Europe (bre)    2c   
  Western Siberia (bre)      1
  Iceland (bre) (faroeensis)      1
Lymnocryptes minimus       
  Europe (bre)  (3c)*     
  Western Siberia (bre)    -1  
Limosa limosa limosa       
  Western Europe/W Africa    2c   
  Eastern Europe/Eastern Africa    2c   
  SW Asia & NE Africa (win)    -1  
Limosa limosa islandica       
  Iceland (bre)  3a*     
Limosa lapponica lapponica       
  Western Palearctic (win)    2a   
  West & Southwest Africa (win)    2a   
  SW Asia & Eastern Africa (win)      -1
Numenius phaeopus phaeopus       
  Europe/Western Africa      1
  Western Siberia/S & E Africa      -1
Numenius phaeopus alboaxillaris3       
  SW Asia/Eastern Africa  1c     
Numenius tenuirostris       
  Gulf, Med & Morocco (win)  1a 1b 1c     
Numenius arquata arquata       
  Europe (bre)      1
Numenius arquata orientalis       
  SW Asia & Eastern Africa (win)  3c     
Tringa erythropus       
  Europe/Western Africa      -1
  SW Asia & Eastern Africa (win)    -1  
Tringa totanus totanus       
  East Atlantic (win)    2c   
  E Europe/E Med & Africa    2c   
Tringa totanus ussuriensis       
  SW Asia & Eastern Africa (win)      -1
Tringa totanus robusta       
  Iceland & Faroes (bre)      1
Tringa stagnatilis       
  Europe/Western Africa    -1  
  SW Asia & E & S Africa (win)    -1  
Tringa nebularia       
  Europe/Western Africa      1
  SW Asia & E & S Africa (win)      -1
Tringa ochropus       
  Europe/Western Africa      1
  SW Asia & Eastern Africa (win)      -1
Tringa glareola       
  Europe (bre)    2c   
  SW Asia, E & S Africa (win)      -1
Tringa cinerea       
  SW Asia & Africa (win)    1  
Tringa hypoleucos       
  Europe (bre)      1
  SW Asia & Eastern Africa (win)      -1
Arenaria interpres interpres       
  Western Palearctic (win)    1  
  Western Africa (win)    1  
  SW Asia, E & S Africa (win)    -1  
Calidris tenuirostris       
  SW Asia & W South Asia (win)  1c     
Calidris canutus canutus       
  Western & Southern Africa (win)    2a 2c   
Calidris canutus islandica       
  NE Can & Greenland/NW Europe    2a   
Calidris alba       
  E Atlantic, W & S Africa (win)      1
  SW Asia, E & S Africa (win)      -1
Calidris minuta       
  Europe & Western Africa (win)      1
  SW Asia, E & S Africa (win)      -1
Calidris temminckii       
  Europe/Western Africa    -1  
  SW Asia & Eastern Africa (win)    -1  
Calidris maritima       
  Eastern Atlantic (win)    1  
Calidris alpina alpina       
  N Siberia/Europe & N Africa    2c   
  SW Asia & NE Africa (win)      -1
Calidris alpina schinzii       
  Iceland & Greenland (bre)      1
  Baltic, UK & Ireland (bre)  3c     
Calidris alpina arctica       
  Greenland (bre)  2    
Calidris ferruginea       
  SW Europe & W Africa (win)      1
  SW Asia, E & S Africa (win)      1
Limicola falcinellus falcinellus       
  N Europe/SW Asia & E Africa  3c     
Philomachus pugnax       
  Western Africa (win)    2c   
  SW Asia, E & S Africa (win)      -1
Phalaropus lobatus       
  Western Eurasia (bre)      1
Phalaropus fulicaria       
  African Atlantic coasts (win)      -1
Larus leucophthalmus       
  Red Sea & nearby coasts  1a 1b 2     
Larus hemprichii       
  Red Sea, Gulf, Arabia & E Africa    2a   
Larus audouinii       
  Med/N & W Africa coasts  1a 3a     
Larus armenicus       
  Armenia, E Turkey & W Iran  3a     
Larus ichthyaetus       
  Black Sea & Caspian/SW Asia  3a     
Larus genei       
  Western Africa (bre)  2    
  Black Sea & Mediterranean (bre)    2a   
  W, SW & S Asia (bre)    2a   
Larus melanocephalus       
  W Europe, Med & NW Africa    2a   
Sterna nilotica nilotica       
  Western Europe/Western Africa  2    
  Black Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)  2    
  Southwestern Asia (win)  2    
Sterna caspia caspia       
  Southern Africa (bre)  1c     
  Western Africa (bre)  2    
  Europe (bre)  1c     
  Caspian (bre)  1c     
Sterna maxima albidorsalis       
  Western Africa (bre)  3a     
Sterna bengalensis bengalensis       
  Gulf/Southern Asia    2a   
Sterna bengalensis par       
  Red Sea/Eastern Africa  3a     
Sterna bengalensis emigrata       
  S Med/NW & W Africa coasts  1c     
Sterna bergii bergii       
  S Africa & Madagascar (bre)  2    
Sterna bergii thalassinus       
  Eastern Africa & Seychelles (bre)  1c     
Sterna bergii velox       
  Red Sea & NE Africa  3a     
Sterna sandvicensis sandvicensis       
  Western Europe/Western Africa    2a   
  Black Sea & Mediterranean (bre)    2a (2c)   
  SW & S Asia (win)    2a   
Sterna dougallii dougallii       
  Europe (bre)  1c     
Sterna hirundo hirundo       
  Southern & Western Europe (bre)      1
  Northern & Eastern Europe (bre)      1
  Western Asia (bre)      -1
Sterna paradisaea       
  Western Eurasia (bre)      1
Sterna albifrons albifrons       
  Eastern Atlantic (bre)  3b     
  B Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)  3c     
  Caspian (bre)  2    
Sterna albifrons guineae       
  Western Africa (bre)  -2    
Sterna saundersi