THE MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPENDIUM

MULTILATERAL / ANTARCTICA
First Update; pages 3-27


_________________________________________________

======================================

Measures Approved or Recommended Under Article IX in Furtherance of the Principles and Objectives of the Antarctic Treaty, Venice, 1992

________________________________


Done at Venice 20 November 1992
Primary source citation: Copy of text provided by the U.S. Department of State


_________________________________________

Recommendation XVII-1 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND DATA MANAGEMENT

The Representatives,

Recalling Recommendations XV-5, XV-16, XVI-12 and paragraphs 106-109 of the Report of the XVIth ATCM;

Noting the report and the valuable work of the First Meeting of Experts on Environmental Monitoring in Antarctica (XVII ATCM/INFO 9) and the recommendations set forth in the afore mentioned report;

Noting that better data management can improve the quality of Antarctic Environmental Monitoring, operations, and science;

Noting additionally the report by SCAR-COMNAP (XVII ATCM/WP 5) describing actions that could be taken to develop a coordinated data management system with the intent to improve the comparability and accessibility of both scientific and environmental data being collected by national programmes, as called for by ATCM Recommendations XIII-5 and XV-16. Recognising that, in the Final Act of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, it was agreed that it was desirable to ensure effective implementation at an early date; and that paragraph 69 of the Report of the XVIth ATCM exhorts the Consultative Parties to ratify the Protocol as soon as possible, and that meanwhile efforts also should be made to implement the provisions of the Annexes as rapidly and completely as possible.

Acknowledging that in order to meet the requirements of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty that calls, under Articles 3.2 (d) and 3.2 (e), for regular and effective monitoring, to allow assessment of the adverse impacts of human activities, it is necessary to focus environment impact monitoring particularly on anthropogenic effects at a local level;

Aware that once established, the Committee for Environmental Protection may offer its advice on these measures, consistent with its terms of reference as provided for in the Protocol;

Aware that applied monitoring can be expensive and may require long term commitment and that any environmental monitoring should be scientifically defensible, practicable and cost-effective;

Recommend to their Governments that they:

1. Through their SCAR National Committees request SCAR to consider and provide advice on:

(i) The types of long-term programmes, if any, necessary to verify that human activities (such as tourism, scientific research or other activities) do not have significant adverse effects on birds, seals and plants; and

(ii) emission standards that should be established to ensure that the combustion of fossil fuels and incineration of waste do not contaminate the Antarctic atmosphere, terrestrial, ice, aquatic or marine environments in a way that would compromise their scientific values;

2. Ask their COMNAP Representatives in consultation with SCAR to establish research programmes at a representative subset of facilities in Antarctica to determine how different types and sizes of facilities in different localities (eg. coastal and inland stations on rocks and on ice shelves) affect the Antarctic environment;

3. Provide a list of the Antarctic data sets being compiled and archived by their nationals and make this list available to other Parties, SCAR and COMNAP, as soon as possible, to form the basis for the development of an Antarctic Data Directory;

4. Establish, as appropriate, national arrangements for obtaining expert advice on the types of data products and data access mechanisms which would best meet both the basic scientific requirements and long-term environmental monitoring requirements.

Recommendation XVII-2 REVISED DESCRIPTIONS AND PROPOSED MANAGEMENT PLANS FOR SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAS

The Representatives,

Recalling Recommendations XV-8 and XV-9;

Noting that revised Area Descriptions and proposed Management Plans have been approved by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR);

Noting also that the format of these revised Area Descriptions and proposed Management Plans accord with Article 5 of Annex V of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty adopted under Recommendation XVI-10;

Recommend to their Governments that for the Specially Protected Areas listed below:

(i) the Descriptions inserted in Annex B, Specially Protected Areas, of the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora be deleted;

(ii) the Descriptions and Management Plans of Specially Protected Areas, annexed to this Recommendation, be inserted in Annex B, Specially Protected Areas, of the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora.

The Specially Protected Areas involved are:

AREA No. 1

Taylor Rookery, Mac Robertson Land;

AREA No. 2

Rookery Islands, Holme Bay, Mac Robertson Land;

AREA No. 3

Ardery Island and Odbert Island, Budd Coast;

AREA No. 20

"New College Valley", Caughley Beach, Cape Bird, Ross Island.

MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREA (SPA) No.1 TAYLOR ROOKERY, MAC ROBERTSON LAND

1. DESCRIPTION OF VALUES TO BE PROTECTED

The area was originally designated a Specially Protected Area because it contains a colony of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) which is one of the few, and probably the largest, of the known colonies of this species located wholly on land. Almost all other emperor penguins rookeries are located on sea ice. The rookery is also important because of long-term monitoring of the population of the penguins (since 1954). The colony is ideal for counting since it is surrounded by small rocky hills which make it possible to observe every bird without entering the breeding area. A photographic census programme has been carried out annually since 1988, and it is believed that this method has resulted in almost complete accuracy of counting.

2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Management of the Area aims to:

prevent unnecessary disturbance to the emperor penguin colony at Taylor Rookery; and

permit research of a compelling scientific nature which can not be undertaken elsewhere, while ensuring no significant disturbance to the ecosystem of the area including the penguin colony.

3. MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

The management plan and activities in the area should be kept under review to ensure that the values for which the area was designated are being fully protected. Inspection visits may be made only when considered essential for management purposes.

4. PERIOD OF DESIGNATION

Designated under ATCM Recommendation IV-1 in November 1966, for an indefinite period.

5. DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA

(a) Geographical coordinates and natural features of the Area:

The Area consists of the whole of the northernmost rock exposure on the east side of Taylor Glacier, Mac Robertson Land (6726'S; 6050'E). The rookery is located on a low lying rock outcrop in the South-West corner of a bay formed by Taylor Glacier to the West, the polar ice cap to the South and the islands of Colbeck Archipelago to the East. The area is surrounded by sea ice to the North and East. The Area is some 90 kilometres West of Mawson station. There is ice free terrain adjacent to the glacier on the western boundary and to the south the rock rises steeply to meet the ice of the plateau. The rock itself forms a horseshoe around a central flat area of exposed rock and moraine. This Area is covered with snow in winter and is occupied by the emperor penguins. The compressed snow melts in summer to form a shallow lake and stream which exits to the North-East. The sides of the horseshoe are rounded ridges of rock which are bare and smoothed by ice.

Otherwise the terrain is rough and dissected with cracks and fissures. The average height of the ridges is about 30 meters. The Area also has a raised beach which is typical of several found along the coast of Mac Robertson Land. The beach is composed of locally derived pebbles, cobbles and boulders between 1 cm and 1 m across. It slopes upwards from the shoreline to a well defined platform several meters broad and 3 to 6 m above sea level.

There are no boundary markers since the Area is easily defined by its natural features.

(b) Access to the Area

Access to the Area is only in accordance with a permit or authority issued by a Contracting Party or its authorised representative.

Restrictions apply to the mode of transport to and within the Area, and access points are prescribed; see Section 8 (a).

(c) Location of structures including scientific stations, research and refuge facilities both within and near the Area:

There are no structures within the Area and no permanent structures are permitted. A four-berth refuge is located in the Colbeck Archipelago, approximately 5 kilometers to the North-East of the Area (see Map B): Mawson Station (6736'S, 6253'E) is approximately 90 kilometers to the East.

(d) Location of other protected areas in or near the Area:

The Rookery Islands (Specially Protected Area No. 2) are located some 80 kilometers to the East of Taylor Rookery (see Map A).

6. IDENTIFICATION OF RESTRICTED ZONES

Access to the emperor penguin colony, marked on Map C, is prohibited unless authorised in a permit.

7. MAPS OF THE AREA

Map A shows the location of the Area in relation to the Mawson region;

Map B shows the location of the field hut on the Colbeck Archipelago, and access routes to the Area;

Map C shows the Area in greater detail, including the usual location of the penguin colony, and the area where all activity such as landing helicopters and installing field huts or field camps should take place, where permitted.

8. CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH PERMITS MAY BE GRANTED

Criteria for issuing a permit to enter the Area are that:

it is issued for a compelling scientific purpose which can not be undertaken elsewhere;

the actions permitted will not jeopardise the natural ecological system existing in the Area; and

the actions permitted are in accordance with the management plan for the Area.

Conditions applying:

(a) Access to and movement within the Area: i) Whatever possible, access should be from sea ice to the east of Colbeck Archipelago, to avoid disturbance to the birds by crossing their pathways from the rookery to the sea (see Map B). Persons in the vicinity, not approaching the colony, should also be aware of the penguins pathways, and take care to cause as little disturbance to them as possible. ii) Travel to the Area may be by oversnow vehicle, which is generally only possible during the period 1 May to 25 December, or by helicopter. Vehicle entry to the Area is prohibited. Oversnow vehicles used for transport to the Area are to be left outside the Area, to the East, and entry must be by foot. The approach route for vehicles is marked on Map B. iii)

Helicopters are not permitted to land in the Area unless sea ice conditions outside the Area are such that it would be hazardous for aircraft to land on ice or for personnel to walk on it. If sea ice conditions are not suitable, helicopters are authorised to land in the Area, to the North-East at the point marked "H", where a headland to the South obscures the colony from view (see Map C). Map B shows the helicopter access route. iv) The following conditions apply to the use of helicopters:

helicopters are to approach the Area from the East over the sea ice and, where sea ice conditions permit, land outside the Area, with access being by foot (see Map B);

overflight of the rookery is prohibited;

when landing outside the Area, helicopters should not land, take off or fly within 500 meters of the rookery;

if landing inside the Area is essential due to sea ice conditions helicopters should land in the North-East of the Area at the point marked "H", where a headland to the South obscures the colony from view (see Map C);

helicopters approaching to land in the Area must fly as low as possible over the sea ice to avoid disturbing the colony; and

helicopters are not to be refueled within the Area. v) There are no marked pedestrian routes within the Area; pedestrian should keep well away from the penguins, unless disturbance to the penguins is authorised by permit. Movement in and around the Area should be such that, in general, the routes used by the birds are not crossed. vi) Dogs are not to be used for transport to the Area.

(b) Activities which are, or may be, conducted within the Area, including restrictions on time and place: i) The penguins are particularly sensitive to disturbance during the following periods:

when they are incubating eggs, from mid-May to mid-July; and

from mid-July, when feeding chicks to mid-December, when the chicks fledge. However penguins are known to be present at the rookery during every month except February, when no recorded expeditions to the rookery have been made; restrictions therefore apply year-round. ii) The emperor penguin colony is ideal for counting. Normally the best vantage point for viewing and photographing the penguins is a rocky headland which runs adjacent to Taylor Glacier, on the western side of the rookery. The ideal time for a census is from 22 June to 5 July, since during this time only incubating males are present, each representing one breeding pair. An ongoing photographic census programme has been carried out since 1988. iii)

Other activities which may be conducted in the Area:

compelling scientific research which can not be undertaken elsewhere and which will not jeopardise the ecosystem of the Area; and

compelling management activities, which if not carried out would jeopardise the values for which the Area was designated.

(c) The installation, modification, and removal of structures:

No structures are to be installed in the Area unless essential for scientific purposes; any structure installed should be removed when it is no longer required. Only the minimum number of personnel necessary to install and to remove the structure should be used. Temporary field huts if permitted, should be placed well away from the penguin colony at the point marked "X", to the North-East of the Area, where a headland to the South obscures the colony from view (see Map C).

(d) The location of field camps:

See (c) above.

(e) Restriction on materials and organisms which may be brought into the Area: i) No poultry products, including dried food containing egg powder, are to be taken into the Area. ii) No depots of food or other supplies are to be left within the Area beyond the season for which they are required. iii) Fuel is not to be depoted in the Area, unless required by a visitor for personal use, (i.e.) for cooking/heating in a field hut, and is to be removed when no longer required.

(f) The taking of, or harmful interference with, native flora and fauna:

Taking of, or harmful interference with, native flora and fauna is prohibited unless specifically authorised by permit issued in accordance with the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora, or Article 3 of Annex II to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, whichever is appropriate.

(g) The collection or removal of anything not brought into the Area by the permit holder:

There is to be no collection or removal of anything not brought into the Area by permit holder unless specifically authorised by permit for scientific or management purposes.

(h) The disposal of waste:

No wastes, including human wastes, are to be left in the Area.

(i) Measures that may be necessary to ensure that the aims and objectives of the management plan can continue to be met:

Permits should specify the maximum number of people allowed entry at any one time.

Visits to the Area should be kept to the minimum necessary to achieve the research and management objectives.

Access should be permitted where necessary to place or remove structures or equipments.

(j) Requirements for reports:

Each permit holder shall submit a report to the permit issuing authorities detailing the activities undertaken within the Area including a summary of research findings, and comments indicating measures taken to ensure compliance with conditions. Where appropriate, the report may make recommendations relevant to the management of the Area, in particular, as to whether the values for which the Area was designated are being adequately protected. The report should be submitted as soon as practicable after the visit to the Area has been completed.

 

 

 

 

MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREA (SPA) No.2 ROOKERY ISLANDS, HOLME BAY, Mac ROBERTSON LAND

1. DESCRIPTION OF VALUES TO BE PROTECTED

The Rookery Islands contain breeding colonies of six bird species resident in the Mawson area; Ad'lie penguin ("Pygoscelis "adeliae), Cape petrel ("Daption "capensis), snow petrel ("Pagodroma "nivea), southern giant petrel ("Macronectes "giganteus), Wilson's storm petrel ("Oceanites "oceanicus) and the Antarctic skua ("Catharacta "maccormicki). The southern giant petrel breeds nowhere else in the region. The designation of the Area aims to safeguard this unusual association of six species and ensure the preservation of a sample offshore island habitat.

2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Management of the Area aims to:

maintain a reference area unmodified by human interference;

permit research of a compelling scientific nature which can not be undertaken elsewhere, while ensuring no significant disturbance to the ecosystem of the Area and maintaining the status of the SPA as a reference area; and

ensure that the breeding colony of southern giant petrels, which is close to the point of local extinction, is not endangered by human impacts.

3. MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

The management plan and activities in the Area should be kept under review to ensure that the values for which the Area was designated are being fully protected. Inspection visits may be made only when considered essential for management purposes.

4. PERIOD OF DESIGNATION

Designated under ATCM Recommendation IV-1 in November 1966 for an indefinite period.

5. DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA

(a) Geographical coordinates and natural features of the area:

Rookery Islands are a group of small islands and rocks in the south-western part of Holme Bay, Mac Robertson Land, approximately 10 kilometres to the west of the Australian station, Mawson. The Area comprises the islands and rocks lying within the rectangle marked on the Map B (see Section 7), the general location of which is latitude 6737'S, longitude 6233'E. There are no boundary markers delimiting the site. There are approximately 75 small islands. They range in size from small rocks which barely remain above water at high tide to the largest members of the group which are Giganteus Island (approximately 400 m long, 400 m wide and 30 m high) and Rookery Island which is of similar area but slightly more elongated. Rookery Island is the highest of the group reaching an altitude of 62 m. Raised beaches are evident on Giganteus Island. The Rookery Islands are outcrops of the Mawson Charnockite, a rock type which is found over an area of at least 2000 square kilometers along the Mawson Coast of Mac Robertson Land.

There are terrestrial algae, as yet unidentified, but no known mosses or lichens. There are no freshwater bodies on the Rookery Islands.

(b) Access to the Area:

Access to the Area is only in accordance with a current permit issued by a Contracting Party or its authorised representative. No access points are prescribed. Restrictions apply to the mode of transport and to the proximity of access points to breeding colonies; for this refer to Section (8).

(c) Location of structures including scientific stations, research and refuge facilities both within and near the Area:

There are no structures within the Area. Mawson Station (6736'S, 6253'E) is approximately 10 kilometers to the east.

(d) Location of other protected areas in or near the Area:

Taylor Rookery (Specially Protected Area No.1) is approximately 80 kilometres west of the islands at latitude 6726'S, longitude 6050'E. 6. IDENTIFICATION OF RESTRICTED ZONES

Access to Giganteus Island is prohibited except where a permit specifies otherwise. See 8 (a) (vi) below.

7. MAPS OF THE AREA

Map A shows the location of the Rookery Islands in the Mawson area, and

Map B is a more detailed Map of the Area.

8. CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH PERMITS MAY BE GRANTED

Criteria for issuing a permit to enter the Area are that:

it is issued for a compelling scientific purpose which can not be undertaken elsewhere;

the actions permitted will not jeopardise the natural ecological system existing in the Area; and

the actions permitted are in accordance with the management plan for the Area.

Conditions applying:

(a) Access to and movement within the Area: i) Travel may be by oversnow vehicles (depending on sea ice conditions). Visitors must ensure that vehicles are taken no closer than 200 meters from concentrations of birds and that they are always left at the shoreline. ii) As helicopter access may at times be the only viable means of reaching the islands, and as the islands are small in size, aircraft may land within 500 metres of breeding colonies. Permission to land a helicopter may be granted for essential scientific purposes only if it can be demonstrated that disturbance will be minimal. iii) No refueling within the Area. iv) Overflight of the islands is prohibited except where essential for scientific purposes. Such overflight is to be at an altitude of no less than 500 metres. v) Dogs are not to be used for transport within the Area. vi) Access to Giganteus Island is prohibited except for the purpose of monitoring the southern giant petrels ("Macronectes "giganteus) or for activities which may be conducted without threat to their population status. As the breeding colony is close to the point of local extinction and the birds are easily disturbed, the number of persons granted entry for this purpose must be strictly limited and include an experienced ornithologist.

(b) Activities which are, or may be conducted within the Area, including restrictions on time and place: i) Compelling scientific activities which cannot be conducted elsewhere. ii) Compelling management activities, which if not carried out would jeopardise the values for which the Area was designated.

(c) The installation, modification, or removal of structures:

No structures including field huts, are to be installed in the Area unless essential for scientific purposes; any structure installed should be removed when no longer required. Only the minimum number of personnel necessary to install and remove the structure should be used.

(d) The location of field camps:

See (c) above.

(e) Restrictions on material and organisms which may be brought into the Area: i) Fuel is not to be depoted in the Area, unless required by a researcher for personal use, i.e. for cooking/heating in a field hut, and is to be removed when no longer required. ii) No poultry products, including dried food containing egg powder, are to be taken into the Area. iii) No food or other supplies should be left within the Area beyond the season for which they are required.

(f) The taking of, or harmful interference with, native flora and fauna:

Taking of, or harmful interference with, native flora and fauna is prohibited unless specifically authorised by permit in accordance with the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora, or Article 3 of Annex II to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, whichever is appropriate.

(g) The collection or removal of anything not brought into the Area by the permit holder:

There is to be no collection or removal of anything not brought into the Area by the permit holder unless specifically authorised by permit for scientific or management purposes.

(h) The disposal of waste:

No wastes, including human wastes, are to be left in the Area.

(i) Measures that may be necessary to ensure that the aims and objectives of the management plan can continue to be met:

permits should specify the maximum numbers of personnel who may enter the Area;

visits to the Area should be kept to the minimum necessary to achieve research and management objectives;

access should be permitted where necessary to place or remove structures or equipments.

(j) Requirements for reports:

Each permit holder shall submit a report to the permit-issuing authority detailing the activities undertaken within the Area including a summary of research findings, and comments indicating measures taken to ensure compliance with conditions. Where appropriate, the report may make recommendations relevant to the management of the Area, in particular, as to whether the values for which the Area was designed are being adequately protected. The report should be submitted as soon as practicable after the visit to the Area has been completed.

 

 

 

MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREA (SPA) No.3 ARDERY ISLAND AND ODBERT ISLAND, BUDD COAST

1. DESCRIPTION OF THE VALUES TO BE PROTECTED

Ardery and Odbert Islands support several breeding species of petrel and provide a sample of their habitat. There is no other readily accessible place in eastern Antarctica where the four genera of fulmarine petrels ("Thalassoica antarctica, Fulmarus glacialoides, Daption capensis and Pagodroma nivea) breed in the same place in sufficient numbers to allow comparative study. Study of these four genera at one location is of high ecological importance both from the point of view of understanding and of monitoring the Southern Ocean ecosystem. It is believed that Ardery Island is unique insofar as it is the only area in the Antarctic which harbours two different subspecies of snow petrels. Studies on morphological or ecological differences between these two subspecies are not possible anywhere else. In addition both islands have breeding populations of Wilson's storm petrels ("Oceanites oceanicus) and Antarctic skuas ("Catharacta maccormicki) and Odbert Island supports breeding populations of Ad'lie penguins ("Pygoscelis adeliae).

2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Management of the Area aims to:

prevent unnecessary disturbance to the colonies of petrels on Ardery and Odbert Islands; and

permit research of a compelling scientific nature which cannot be undertaken elsewhere, while ensuring that this has no significant impact on the ecosystem in the area.

3. MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

The management plan and activities in the Area should be kept under review to ensure that the values for which the Area was designated are being fully protected. Inspection visits may be made only when considered essential for management purposes.

4. PERIOD OF DESIGNATION

Designated under Recommendation IV-3 in November 1966 for an indefinite period.

5. DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA

(a) Geographical coordinates and natural features of the Area:

Ardery Island (6622'S, 11028'E) and Odbert Island (6622'S, 11033'E) form part of the Windmill Islands group lying in the East of Vincennes Bay, off the Budd Coast (see Map A) . They are located 5 km and 0. 6 km respectively to the West of Robinson Ridge, South of Casey Station. Odbert Island is approximately 2.5 km long and 0.5 km wide. It has a rocky coast which raises steeply from the sea to a plateau. The highest point is 100 m above sea level. The plateau is dissected by a series of valleys which run to the South from the high flat rim on the northern side. These valleys are snow-covered in winter. The hill tops remain essentially ice and snow free. In some years the island remains joined to Robinson Ridge on the mainland by sea ice. Ardery Island is a steep ice-free island approximately 1 km long and 0.5 km wide, with an East-West orientation. The highest point is 113 m above mean sea level.

The terrain on both islands is rugged and dissected by fissures. The cliffs are fractured and have many narrow exposed ledges which in Summer are occupied by nesting sea birds. On the hillsides and plateau region, the exposed rock is ice-smoothed and the valley floors are covered with moraine. Both islands have several small tarns which are frozen in Winter and filled with melt water in Summer. Many of these are ephemeral and dry out towards the end of Summer. Others which are located below snow banks, are fed continuously by melt water.

(b) Access to the Area:

Access to the Area may only be in accordance with a permit or authority issued by a Contracting Party or its authorised representative.

Defined landing sites for access by sea and helicopters to Ardery and Odbert Islands are shown on Map B and C respectively. On Ardery Island the preferred boat landing site is at Robertson Landing where there are three rock anchors present to tie down a boat or other equipment. It should be noted that all three boat landing sites marked on Map B are within 200 metres of colonies of birds, however they represent the only safe landing sites on the island and if landings are undertaken carefully there is no disturbance to the birds.

There are no defined pedestrian routes within the Area, however pedestrians should avoid disturbance of the birds at all times.

(c) Location of structures including scientific stations, research and refuge facilities both within and near the Area:

There are no structures within the Area and no permanent structures are permitted.

The islands lie approximately 12 km South of Casey Station.

A four-berth refuge hut is located on Robinson's Ridge, 0.5 km from the shore.

(d) Location of other protected areas in or near the Area:

North-East Bailey Peninsula (6617'S, 11032'E) (Site of Special Scientific Interest No 16) and Clark Peninsula (6615'S, 11036'E) (Site of Special Scientific Interest No 17) lie opposite the Windmill Islands (see Map A).

6. IDENTIFICATION OF RESTRICTED ZONES

Access to the petrel and Ad'lie penguin colonies marked on Maps B and C is prohibited unless authorised in a permit.

7. MAPS OF THE AREA

Three maps of the Area are attached.

Map A shows the Area and its location.

Map B (Ardery Island), and

Map C (Odbert Island) show preferred helicopter approaches and landing sites, landing sites for access by water and the location of the petrel and Ad'lie breeding colonies.

8. CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH PERMITS MAY BE GRANTED

Criteria for issuing a permit to enter the Area are that:

it is issued for a compelling scientific purpose which cannot be pursued elsewhere;

the actions permitted will not jeopardise the natural ecological system existing in Area; and

the actions permitted are in accordance with the management plan for the Area.

Conditions applying:

(a) Access to and movement within the Area: i) Travel to the island should be by foot, oversnow vehicle or boat where possible; oversnow vehicles used to visit the islands must be left at the shoreline and movement within the area should be by foot. ii) If access to the islands is not possible by sea or over sea-ice, then helicopters may be used subject to the following conditions:

overflight of the islands should be avoided at all times, except where it is considered essential for scientific purposes. In these instances, overflight must be at an altitude or horizontal distance of no less than 500 metres;

during the breeding season of penguins and petrels, defined here as the period from 1 November to 1 April, helicopter movement to the islands should be kept to the minimum;

refueling is not to take place within the Area;

only personnel who are required to carry out work in the Area should leave the helicopter;

the approach to Ardery Island should be at a high altitude and from a southern direction as the lowest densities of birds are on the southern cliffs (see Map B);

the approach to Odbert Island should preferably be from the South, avoiding cliff areas because of the nesting petrels (see Map C).

(b) Activities which are, or may be, conducted within the Area, including restrictions on time and place: i) Compelling scientific activities which cannot be conducted elsewhere. ii) Compelling management activities, which if not carried out would jeopardise the values for which the Area was designated. iii) Where activities necessitate interference with the birds care should be taken to cause the least possible disturbance, particularly during the period 1 November to 1 April.

(c) The installation, modification, or removal of structures:

No structures may be erected in the Area unless essential for research purposes. Any structures installed on the islands must be removed when no longer required. Installation of a field hut on Ardery Island should take place wherever possible before 1 November when the breeding season commences and removal should be after 1 April when the fledglings have departed. Installation and removal should be by oversnow transport unless sea-ice conditions prevent this. For use of helicopters see (a) ii above.

(d) The location of field camps:

If required for field work, a hut may be erected on Ardery Island at the point specified on Map B. There are 8 solid rock anchors available at this spot.

(e) Restrictions on materials and organisms which may be brought into the Area: i) Fuel is not to be depoted on the islands, unless required by a researcher for personal use, i.e. for cooking/heating etc., in a field hut on Ardery Island, and is to be removed at the same time as the hut. ii) No poultry products, including dried food containing egg powder, are to be taken into the Area.

(f) The taking of or harmful interference with native flora and fauna:

Taking of, or harmful interference with, native flora and fauna is prohibited unless specifically authorised by permit issued in accordance with the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora, or Article 3 of the Annex II to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, whichever is appropriate.

(g) The collection or removal of anything not brought into the Area by the permit holder:

There is to be no collection or removal of anything not brought into the Area by the permit holder unless specifically authorised by permit for scientific or management purposes.

(h) The disposal of waste:

No wastes, including human wastes, are to be left in the Area.

(i) Measures that may be necessary to ensure that the aims and objectives of the management plan can continue to be met:

permits should specify the maximum number of people allowed entry at any one time;

visits to the Area should be kept to the minimum necessary to achieve the research and management objectives;

access should be permitted where necessary to place or remove structures or equipments.

(j) Requirements for reports:

Each permit holder shall submit a report to the permit-issuing authority detailing the activities undertaken within the Area including a summary of research findings, and comments indicating measures taken to ensure compliance with conditions. Where appropriate, the report may make recommendations relevant to the management of the Area, in particular, as to whether the values for which the Area was designated are being adequately protected. The report should be submitted as soon as practicable after the visit to the Area has been completed.

 

 

 

 

SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREA (SPA) No 20 "NEW COLLEGE VALLEY", Caughley Beach, Cape Bird, Ross Island

1. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

The site is in latitude 7714'S, longitude 16623'E, in the northern part of Cape Bird ice-free area. It lies between Northern Rookery and Middle Rookery and is about 250 m South of the Summer research station.

2. MANAGEMENT PLAN i) Description of Area

Topography

The Area consists of the generally west-facing ice-free slopes lying between the cliff top above Caughley Beach and a line parallel to and about 100 m East of the edge of the Mount Bird Ice Cap, and between a line South of the main stream bed of "Keble Valley" and the South ridge of "New College Valley". It is surrounded to the North, South and East by Site of Special Scientific Interest No 10, and to the West terminates at the cliff tops above Caughley Beach. Its total area is about 10 ha.

The ground is largely covered by stones and boulders of volcanic origin which have been reworked by glacial action. There are a few glacial erratic boulders of different origin.

The major feature of the site is "New College Valley" which has been cut by the vigorous flows of meltwater received from the Mount Bird Ice Cap during Summer. Tributaries to this stream and two other smaller streams in the area are fed by melt from persistent summer snowdrifts and have eroded their own shallow gullies and channels.

Biological features

A general description of the vegetation is provided by Broady (1984/89) as part of a broad survey of vegetation at Cape Bird and two other ice-free areas on Ross Island. Longton (1973, 1974) classified the bryophyte community at Caughley Beach as the "Bryum "antarcticum Sociation in which "B.antarcticum is dominant with occasional "B.argenteum. It is not clear from the information presented whether the site examined was actually inside the SPA but, if not, it was certainly very close. Sketch maps of moss and algae stands within the SPA are provided by Broady (1984).

Stream vegetation includes luxuriant red-brown oscillatoriacean ("Cyanobacteria) mats, rich epilithic green filaments and crusts of chlorophyte algae, and colonies of Nostoc ("Cyanobacteria).

The more or less north-west-facing slopes of the main valley and smaller gullies support extensive moss stands as scattered small cushions and as confluent growths up to several square meters in extent (total cover, over 200 m). Often the plants and surrounding soil become covered with a white mineral encrustation if meltwater supply ceases during the Summer and vegetation and soils dessicate. The maximum development of moss is found along the borders of shallow channels taking meltwater from snow drifts. Also scattered cushions no more than 5 cm in diameter are found on moist ground where melt percolations are not channelled but seep broadly over the surface. Bryophyte biomass at Caughley Beach (Longton, 1974) was estimated as 14 and 938 g dry weight per square metre for two stands, with 1.4% and 84.7% cover respectively.

The mosses are generally associated with abundant red-brown oscillatoriacean mats and occasionally with colonies of Nostoc. Other areas of soaked ground are dominated by either Nostoc colonies (approximately 100 m_) or oscillatoriacean mats (approximately 200 m_).

Skuas ("Catharacta maccormicki) nest on the beach below the cliffs to the West of the site and frequently overfly and land within the SPA. Ad'lie penguins ("Pygoscelis adeliae) from large nearby rookeries occasionally traverse the area. Nutrient enrichment of soils occurs from deposited guano as well as from windblown particulates from the large penguin rookeries to the North and South. ii) Reason for designation

The area contains some of the most luxuriant stands on Ross Island of moss and algae vegetation and associated microflora and microfauna. Because of the susceptibility of this vegetation to damage from trampling, the designation of the area provides protection for its biota, so that the area may serve as a conservation reserve representative of the adjacent Site of Special Scientific Interest. iii) Date of designation and originator

The site was established by Recommendation XIII-12 following its proposal to SCAR by New Zealand in October 1984. iv)

Access points

The site can be accessed only by passing through the adjacent SSSI. It is best reached by a route directly South-East from the summer research station to the North. Care should be taken to avoid any areas of vegetation along the way. v) Entry permit requirement

Entry to the area is only in strict accordance with a current permit, issued by the participating Government or its authorised representative, specifically for a compelling scientific purpose which cannot be served elsewhere or for site inspection (but see "Inspection and maintenance" below), and which will not jeopardise any aspect of the natural ecosystem or its biota within the area (see Antarctic Treaty Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora, Article VIII). Details of the visit should be included in the national annual report of Exchange of Information for the same Antarctic station in which the activities were carried out. vi) Prohibition

To avoid or minimize human impact it is forbidden to:

(a) drive any vehicle within the Area;

(b) land a helicopter within the Area;

(c) overfly the Area by an aircraft below 250 m above the highest point;

(d) incinerate, bury or otherwise dispose of any nonhuman and human waste within the Area; all such waste must be removed from the Area;

(e) leave depots of fuels, food, or any other supply within the Area;

(f) erect any form of building within the Area;

(g) use any sampling or other equipment within the Area which has not been sterilized using an acceptable method. vii) Pedestrian routes

Every precaution must be taken to keep clear of visible vegetation and also waterlogged ground, whether this has visible vegetation or not. During Summer all these areas are easily damaged by trampling. Saturated ground, especially where situated on sloping terrain, is very prone to slip when traversed by foot and the marking of deep footprints would be unavoidable. Routes should be taken which pass upslope of persistent summer snow drifts, especially during times of thaw. In this way saturated ground would be most easily avoided. viii) Scientific research and samplimg

All activities must conform strictly with those specified in the permit to enter the Area. Only for exceptional purposes would sampling of vegetation be permitted as there are similar areas of vegetation in the adjacent SSSI, as well as outside the designated areas to the South of the site.

Persons permitted to enter the site should take all reasonable precautions to avoid introducing plants and micro-organisms from elsewhere. All sampling apparatus should be sterilized before use and boots should be thoroughly cleaned before entry. ix) inspection and maintenance

Inspection visits to the Area should be made once every year to assess the state of the site and to monitor any significant biological or environmental changes. However, entry to the site is not necessary for these visits as its state can be readily viewed from the surrounding SSSI. Also, as the site is small and contains rich terrestrial moss and algal vegetation, on site inspection visits could themselves cause damage.

3. BIBLIOGRAPHY

BROADY, P.A. 1984. The Vegetation of Cape Bird, Ross Island, Antarctica. Melbourne University Programme in Antarctic Studies, Report No 62, 42pp, 15 tables, 140 figs.

BROADY, P.A. 1989. Broadscale patterns in the distribution of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation at three ice-free regions on Ross Island, Antarctica. Hydrobiologia, 172: 77-95. LONGTON, R.E. 1973. A classification of terrestrial vegetation near McMurdo Sound, continental Antarctica. Canadian Journal of Botany, 51:2339-46. LONGTON, R.E. 1974. Microclimate and biomass in communities in the Bryum association on Ross Island, continental Antarctica. The Bryologist, 77: 109-22. (Postscript: It is intended to place signs close to the boundaries on this site and to choose boundaries which more closely follow natural features. The latter requires a more detailed map than presently available. Action on both of these will be taken this coming Summer).

Recommendation XVII-3 ANTARCTIC PROTECTED AREAS

NEW HISTORIC SITES AND MONUMENTS

WOODEN PLAQUE AND ROCK CAIRN AT PENGUINS BAY

The Representatives,

Recalling Recommendations I-IX, V-4, VI-14, VII-9, XII-7, XIII-16 and XIV-8;

Recommend to their Governments that the following historic monuments be added to the "List of Historic Monuments Identified and Described by the proposing Government or Governments" annexed to Recommendation VII-9, and that thereafter they be accorded the respect and protection required by the Recommendation recalled above:

Wooden plaque and rock cairn located at Penguins Bay, southern coast of Seymour Island (Marambio), James Ross Archipelago (6416'00''S - 5639'10''W) . This plaque was placed on 10 November 1903 by the crew of a rescue mission of the Argentinian Corvette "Uruguay" in the site where they met members of the Swedish expedition led by Dr. Otto Nordenskjold.

The text of the wooden plaque reads as follows:

10.XI.1903 "Uruguay," (Argentine Navy) in its journey to give assistance to the Swedish Antarctic expedition.

In January 1990, a rock cairn was erected by Argentina in memory of this event in the place where the plaque is located.

Recommendation XVII-4 GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN ANTARCTICA

The Representatives,

Recalling Articles II & III of the Antarctic Treaty and Article VI of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, and Recommendation XV-14 on the promotion of international scientific cooperation;

Reaffirming the Declaration adopted at the XVIth Consultative Meeting on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the entry into force of the Antarctic Treaty;

Noting the recognition in Agenda 21 of the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development of the importance of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean for the study of global change processes;

Acknowledging the role that intensified coordination of national research programmes and increased international cooperation should play, such as SCAR's publication on "the role of Antarctica in global change";

Conscious as well that the development of an implementation plan for Antarctic research contribution to the International Geosphere - Biosphere Programme represents a significant step to be accomplished during the Decade of International Antarctic Scientific Cooperation (1991-2000) proclaimed by the XVIth ATCM;

Recommend to their Governments that they:

1. welcome the decision adopted by the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research at XXII SCAR to establish a new group of specialists on global change and the Antarctic, in order to provide linkages and communications between national programmes, SCAR Working Group and other Groups of Specialists in areas of relevant Antarctic research;

2. encourage SCAR to articulate, in close cooperation with COMNAP, a management structure to implement a coordinated programme for global change research in the Antarctic and to contribute through the development of Regional Research Centres (RRC's) to the IGBP System for Analysis, Research and Training (START) and to other major regional and international programs on global change research;

3. support initiatives such as the proposal of the SCAR Working Group on Biology and the offer made by Chile to hold a workshop on the coordination of biological research on King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo); the Cooperative geoscience of the South Shetland Islands (COGS) whose second workshop was sponsored by the National Institute of Polar Research of Japan; and similar initiatives to coordinate research in glaciology and solar-terrestrial studies;

4. note with appreciation the completion of SCAR's proposal for coordinated Antarctic research (the role of Antarctica in global change: part 2) to be published late in 1992 and the plan to implement a regional program of global change research in the Antarctic, through: i) continuing identification of high priority research needs in process studies, monitoring, and modelling; ii) identifying other needs in the implementation of the programme, such as logistics, data management, etc; iii) organising workshops and symposia to synthesise and discuss research results;

5. that the above mentioned regional programme of Global Change research in the Antarctic should be given a high scientific priority and supported to the greater extent feasible by Governments;

6. may consider applying to the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and other acceptable funding mechanisms to support the proposed new group of specialists and their work.