ANNEX II TO THE PROTOCOL ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TO THE ANTARCTIC TREATY, Madrid and Bonn, 1991
Done at Madrid 4 October 1991; Annex V done at Bonn 17 October 1991
Not in force
For the purposes of this Annex:
‘native mammal’ means any member of any species belonging to the Class Mammalia, indigenous to the Antarctic Treaty area or occurring there seasonally through natural migrations;
‘native bird’ means any member, at any stage of its life cycle (including eggs), of any species of the Class Aves indigenous to the Antarctic Treaty area or occurring there seasonally through natural migrations;
‘native plant’ means any terrestrial or freshwater vegetation, including bryophytes, lichens, fungi and algae, at any stage of its life cycle (including seeds, and other propagules), indigenous to the Antarctic Treaty area;
‘native invertebrate’ means any terrestrial or freshwater invertebrate, at any stage of its life cycle, indigenous to the Antarctic Treaty area;
‘appropriate authority’ means any person or agency authorized by a Party to issue permits under this Annex;
‘permit’ means a formal permission in writing issued by an appropriate authority;
‘take’ or ‘taking’ means to kill, injure, capture, handle or molest, a native mammal or bird, or to remove or damage such quantities of native plants that their local distribution or abundance would be significantly affected;
‘harmful interference’ means:
flying or landing helicopters or other aircraft in a manner that disturbs concentrations of birds and seals;
(ii) using vehicles or vessels, including hovercraft and small boats, in a manner that disturbs concentrations of birds and seals;
using explosives or firearms in a manner that disturbs concentrations of birds and seals;
wilfully disturbing breeding or moulting birds or concentrations of birds and seals by persons on foot;
significantly damaging concentrations of native terrestrial plants by landing aircraft, driving vehicles, or walking on them, or by other means; and
any activity that results in the significant adverse modification of habitats of any species or population of native mammal, bird, plant or invertebrate.
‘International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling’ means the Convention done at Washington on 2 December 1946.
This Annex shall not apply in cases of emergency relating to the safety of human life or of ships, aircraft, or equipment and facilities of high value, or the protection of the environment.
Notice of activities undertaken in cases of emergency shall be circulated immediately to all Parties and to the Committee.
Taking or harmful interference shall be prohibited, except in accordance with a permit.
Such permits shall specify the authorized activity, including when, where and by whom it is to be conducted and shall be issued only in the following circumstances:
to provide specimens for scientific study or scientific information;
to provide specimens for museums, herbaria, zoological and botanical gardens, or other educational or cultural institutions or uses; and
to provide for unavoidable consequences of scientific activities not otherwise authorized under sub-paragraphs (a) or (b) above, or of the construction and operation of scientific support facilities.
The issue of such permits shall be limited so as to ensure that:
no more native mammals, birds, or plants are taken than are strictly necessary to meet the purposes set forth in paragraph 2 above;
only small numbers of native mammals or birds are killed and in no case more native mammals or birds are killed from local populations than can, in combination with other permitted takings, normally be replaced by natural reproduction in the following season; and
the diversity of species, as well as the habitats essential to their existence, and the balance of the ecological systems existing within the Antarctic Treaty area are maintained.
Any species of native mammals, birds and plants listed in Appendix A to this Annex shall be designated ‘Specially Protected Species’, and shall be accorded special protection by the parties.
A permit shall not be issued to take a Specially Protected Species unless the taking:
is for a compelling scientific purpose;
will not jeopardize the survival or recovery of that species or local population; and
uses non-lethal techniques where appropriate.
All taking of native mammals and birds shall be done in the manner that involves the least degree of pain and suffering practicable.
1. No species of animal or plant not native to the Antarctic Treaty area shall be introduced onto land or ice shelves, or into water in the Antarctic Treaty area except in accordance with a permit.
2. Dogs shall not be introduced onto land or ice shelves and dogs currently in those areas shall be removed by April 1, 1994. 3. Permits under paragraph 1 above shall be issued to allow the importation only of the animals and plants listed in Appendix B to this Annex and shall specify the species, numbers and, if appropriate, age and sex and precautions to be taken to prevent escape or contact with native fauna and flora.
4. Any plant or animal for which a permit has been issued in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 3 above, shall, prior to expiration of the permit, be removed from the Antarctic Treaty area or be disposed of by incineration or equally effective means that eliminates risk to native fauna or flora. The permit shall specify this obligation. Any other plant or animal introduced into the Antarctic Treaty area not native to that area, including any progeny, shall be removed or disposed of, by incineration or by equally effective means, so as to be rendered sterile, unless it is determined that they pose no risk to native flora or fauna.
5. Nothing in this Article shall apply to the importation of food into the Antarctic Treaty area provided that no live animals are imported for this purpose and all plants and animal parts and products are kept under carefully controlled conditions and disposed of in accordance with Annex III to the Protocol and Appendix C to this Annex.
6. Each Party shall require that precautions, including those listed in Appendix C to this Annex, be taken to prevent the introduction of micro-organisms (e.g., viruses, bacteria, parasites, yeasts, fungi) not present in the native fauna and flora.
Each Party shall prepare and make available information setting forth, in particular, prohibited activities and providing lists of Specially Protected Species and relevant Protected Areas to all those persons present in or intending to enter the Antarctic Treaty area with a view to ensuring that such persons understand and observe the provisions of this Annex.
The Parties shall make arrangements for:
collecting and exchanging records (including records of permits) and statistics concerning the numbers or quantities of each species of native mammal, bird or plant taken annually in the Antarctic Treaty area;
obtaining and exchanging information as to the status of native mammals, birds, plants, and invertebrates in the Antarctic Treaty area, and the extent to which any species or population needs protection;
establishing a common form in which this information shall be submitted by Parties in accordance with paragraph 2 below.
Each Party shall inform the other Parties as well as the Committee before the end of November of each year of any step taken pursuant to paragraph 1 above and of the number and nature of permits issued under this Annex in the preceding period of 1st July to 30th June.
Nothing in this Annex shall derogate from the rights and obligations of Parties under the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling.
The Parties shall keep under continuing review measures for the conservation of Antarctic fauna and flora, taking into account any recommendations from the Committee.
1. This Annex may be amended or modified by a measure adopted in accordance with Article IX (1) of the Antarctic Treaty. Unless the measure specifies otherwise, the amendment or modification shall be deemed to have been approved, and shall become effective, one year after the close of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting at which it was adopted, unless one or more of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties notifies the Depositary, within that time period, that it wishes an extension of that period or that it is unable to approve the measure.
2. Any amendment or modification of this Annex which becomes effective in accordance with paragraph 1 above shall thereafter become effective as to any other Party when notice of approval by it has been received by the Depositary.
All species of the genus Arctocephalus, Fur Seals. Ommatophoca rossii, Ross Seal.
The following animals and plants may be imported into the Antarctic Treaty area in accordance with permits issued under Article 4 of this Annex:
domestic plants; and
laboratory animals and plants including viruses, bacteria, yeasts and fungi.
1. Poultry. No live poultry or other living birds shall be brought into the Antarctic Treaty area. Before dressed poultry is packaged for shipment to the Antarctic Treaty area, it shall be inspected for evidence of disease, such as Newcastle's Disease, tuberculosis, and yeast infection. Any poultry or parts not consumed shall be removed from the Antarctic Treaty area or disposed of by incineration or equivalent means that eliminates risks to native flora and fauna.
2. The importation of non-sterile soil shall be avoided to the maximum extent practicable.