Volume(s) 1-3; pages 244-284



Measures Approved or Recommended Under Article IX in Furtherance of Principles and Objectives of the Antarctic Treaty, Rio de Janeiro, 1987 Adopted at Rio de Janeiro 16 October 1987

Not in effect

Primary source citation: Antarctic Treaty: Report of the Fourteenth Consultative Meeting, Federative Republic of Brazil, Ministry of External Affairs, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1988




The Representatives,

Conscious of the value of increasing public knowledge of the achievements and operation of the Antarctic Treaty System;

Noting operative paragraph 4 of Recommendation XII-6, subparagraph (c) of which is no longer relevant;

Desiring to modify subparagraphs (a) and (b) of the said operative paragraph 4, which deal with the handling of Information Documents;

Recommend to their Governments that operative paragraph 4 of Recommendation XII-6 be replaced by the following:

‘4. Starting with the XVth Consultative Meeting, Delegations should indicate, when submitting an Information Document, if they intend that document not to be made public. In the absence of such an indication, the Document will be publicly available as from the closure of the Meeting at which it was submitted.’


The Representatives,


(i) Article II of the Antarctic Treaty, Recommendations IV-4, VIII-11, VIII-13, IX-5 and XII-3;

(ii) the work of SCAR with respect to the elaboration of procedures for evaluating impacts from scientific and logistic activities;

(iii) the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) ‘Goals and Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment’ adopted by the UNEP Governing Council at its Fourteenth Session (June 1987);

Reaffirming that, before decisions are taken by their respective national organizations responsible for Antarctic activities to undertake scientific research or associated logistic activities that are likely significantly to affect the Antarctic environment, the environmental effects of such activities should be identified so that such effects may be carefully weighted against the advantages that are expected to be derived from the activity in question;


(i) to promote the implementation by Consultative Parties of appropriate procedures consistent with national laws and decision-making processes, through which the foregoing goal may be realized;

(ii) to encourage the development of reciprocal procedures for information exchange and comment between Parties when proposed activities are likely to have significant effects on the Antarctic environment;

(iii) to introduce a measure of comparability between environmental impact assessment procedures for use with respect to the scientific research and associated logistic activities of Consultative Parties;

(iv) to ensure that in the implementation of such procedures due account is taken of, inter alia, the cumulative impact such activities may have in the Antarctic environment and of their possible impact on other uses of Antarctica and on dependent and related ecosystems;

Recommend to their Governments that:

1. In the planning process leading to decisions about scientific research programmes and their associated logistic support facilities, their respective national Antarctic organizations responsible for Antarctic activities evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in accordance with the procedural guidelines set out below:


(i) The proposed activity should be defined and described; such description to include information on the needs to be met by the proposed activity and features of the activity that might cause impacts on the environment;

(ii) A first evaluation, termed an ‘Initial Environmental Evaluation’, should be performed to determine whether the activity might reasonably be expected to have a significant impact;

(iii) If this Initial Environmental Evaluation indicates that the proposed activity is likely to have no more than a minor or transitory effect on the environment, the activity may proceed, with the proviso that appropriate monitoring of the actual impact should take place;

(iv) Otherwise, a ‘Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation’ should be prepared;

(v) Such a Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation should include:

(a) descriptions of the proposed activity and feasible alternatives, including the alternative of not proceeding, and their respective consequences on Antarctic research;

(b) a description of the initial environmental reference state with which predicted changes are to be compared and a prediction of the future environmental state in the absence of the proposed activity;

(c) estimation of the nature, extent, duration and intensity of the likely direct environmental effects resulting from the proposed activity;

(d) consideration of possible indirect or second order effects;

(e) consideration of cumulative impacts of the proposed activity in the light of existing activities and other known planned activities;

(f) identification of measures, including monitoring programmes, that could be taken to minimize or mitigate impacts and detect possible unforeseen effects;

(g) identification of unavoidable impacts;

(h) evaluation of the significance of the predicted environmental effects in relation to the advantages of the proposed activity;

(vi) On the basis of the Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation, a decision would be made by the appropriate national authority whether the activity should proceed and, if so, in its original or in a modified form;

(vii) Key indicators of the environmental effects of the activity should be monitored and, where possible, environmental impacts should, as in all Antarctic activities, be minimized or mitigated.

2. In the process of preparing a Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation, Parties concerned shall be informed, and be given the opportunity to comment, either directly or through their national contact points.

3. Final Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations shall be transmitted as part of the annual exchange of information provided for under the Antarctic Treaty.


The Representatives,

Recalling Article II of the Antarctic Treaty and Recommendations VIII-13, IX-5, X-7 and XII-3;

Recognizing the knowledge of the tectonic, geochemical and climatic evolution of the Antarctic region that can be obtained from Scientific Drilling;

Bearing in mind the potential risk to the Antarctic environment in cases where such drilling could result in hydrocarbons being released into the Antarctic environment;

Conscious of the need for adequate preparation and planning of such drilling to ensure the best possible scientific results and protection of the Antarctic environment;

Conscious also that planning such drilling will require preparation of a Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation as provided for in Recommendation XIV-2;

Recommend to their Governments that they adopt and use the following Guidelines to assist in evaluating and avoiding the potential risk for significant adverse environmental impacts resulting from such drilling:

Guidelines for Scientific Drilling in the Antarctic Treaty Area

i) Before undertaking any scientific drilling that may have significant adverse environmental effects, adequately detailed geophysical surveys shall be performed of the sites in question to enable any potential hazard associated with any specific drill site within the area of interest to be evaluated along with any other information available about that particular site.

ii) All feasible precautions shall be taken to locate such drill sites offstructure to reduce the possibility of encountering hydrocarbons.

iii) Such planned drill sites and operational drilling plans, including the geophysical survey results and other information, shall be reviewed by a body of appropriate experts to identify potential hazards and to assess the potential risk to the environment resulting from the proposed drilling and how those risks can be minimized.

iv) If any significant potential hazard is identified which cannot be avoided by modifying the planned drilling procedure or equipment, the location of the proposed drill site shall be abandoned and any recommendations of the reviewing body shall be considered in connection with the choice of an alternative site.

v) Contingency plans shall be prepared to deal with any problems that may develop during the drilling process.

vi) The drilling process shall be continuously monitored for potential hazards and necessary action shall be taken if problems occur.

vii) Notification shall be provided to the responsible national agency by those conducting drilling operations of all hazards encountered, including the location of the site at which they were identified, and a description of the actions taken.


The Representatives,

Recalling Recommendations VIII-3, VIII-4, X-6, XII-5 and XIII-7;

Noting that:

(i) in accordance with paragraph 2 of Recommendation VIII-3 the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) at its Nineteenth Meeting at San Diego, USA in June 1986, had reviewed the Site of Special Scientific Interest N 2 and had noted the importance of protecting this site from man-made electromagnetic interference over a range of frequencies from 10-2 Hz to 108 Hz in view of the value of the site for the study of natural electromagnetic phenomena of relevance to ionospheric and magnetospheric physics;

(ii) experience of the practical effect of the management plan for the site had shown it to be an effective means of reducing the risks of harmful interference with the scientific research being undertaken in it;

(iii) no change to the management plan had been proposed by SCAR;

Recommend to their Governments that:

1. The date of expiry of designation of Site Number 2 be extended from 31 December 1987 to 31 December 1997. 2. They use their best endeavours to ensure, in accordance with paragraphs 3 and 4 of Recommendation VIII-3 that the management plan for this site is observed.


The Representatives,

Recalling Recommendations VIII-3 and VIII-4;

Noting that management plans have been prepared and approved by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) for certain Sites of Special Scientific Interest additional to those already designated;

Considering that it would be advantageous to gather experience of the practical effect of the management plans prepared for these Sites;

Recommend to their Governments that they voluntarily take account of the management plans, annexed to this Recommendation for the following Sites:

Site N 22:

Yukidori Valley, Langhovde, Lutzow-Holm Bay.

Site N 23:

Svarthamaren, Mhlig-Hofmannfjella, Dronning Maud Land.

Site N 24:

Summit of Mt Melbourne, North Victoria Land.

Site N 25:

Marine Plain, Mule Peninsula, Vestfold Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land.

Site N 26:

Chile Bay (Discovery Bay), Greenwich Islands, South Shetland Islands.

Site N 27:

Port Foster, Deception Island, South Shetland Islands.

Site N 28:

South Bay, Doumer Island, Palmer Archipelago.



Management Plan

(i) Description of Site Physical Features

Yukidori Valley (lat. 69°14°30° S, long. 39°46°00° E), is situated in the middle part of Langhovde, on the east coast of Lutzow-Holm Bay, Greater Antarctica.

The site encompasses an area of 3 km by 0.5-1.5 km, located between a tongue of the ice cap and the sea at the western end of the valley; it extends up to 50 m offshore near the mouth of the stream. The location of the site and its boundaries are shown on the attached maps.

Topography. The valley is about 3 km in length from east to west and 0.5 to 1.5 km in width and contains a prominent melt stream and two lakes; the head of the valley, about 200 m above sea level, abuts the edge of the ice cap. Lake Higashi Yukidori lies north of the head of the valley. The stream flows from the ice cap towards the sea through V-shaped and U-shaped sectors of the valley and enters Lake Yukidori, in the middle of the valley, 125 m above sea level; it then flows from the south-west corner of the lake and runs through the lower valley formed by steep cliffs. Fluvioglacial terraces in the lower part of the valley consist of fine sand and gravel. There is a dissected deltaic fan formed at the mouth of the stream.

Geology and soils. The valley is underlain by well-layered sequences of late Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, consisting of garnet-biotite gneiss, biotite gneiss, pyroxene gneiss and hornblende gneiss with metabasite. The foliation of the gneisses strike N 10°E and dips monoclinally to the east.

Meteorology. A continuous climatic record has been maintained since 1957 at Syowa Station, Ongul Island, 30 km north of the site (published as ‘Antarctic Meteorological Data’ by the Japan Meteorological Agency).

Biological Features

Terrestrial. Almost all of the plant species recorded from the Langhovde area occur within the site. They include the mosses Bryum pseudotriquetrum (= B. algens), B. argenteum, Ceratodon purpureus, Pottia heimii, Grimmia lawiana, and the lichens Usnea sphacelata (= U. sulphurea), Umbilicaria antarctica, U. decussata, Alectoria (= Pseudephebe) minuscula, Xanthoria elegans. There are no liverworts or vascular plants. Two species of free living mites (Nanorchestes antarcticus and Tydeus erebus) have been reported.

Inland waters. Sixty-four species of microalgae, including cyanobacteria and green algae, have been reported from Lake Yukidori and the adjacent area. Among them were one new species of Cosmarium (C. yukidoriense) and three new varieties of C. clepsydra.

Marine. No information

Birds and seals. Several pairs of the south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki) and numerous snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea: Note ‘Yukidori’ is Japanese for the snow petrel) breed in the site. The excrement of snow petrels is especially important as a major supply of nutrients for lichens and mosses. There is no information on seals.

(ii) Reason for designation

Yukidori Valley is representative of the typical continental Antarctic fellfield ecosystem. The area has been chosen for an on-going biological research programme and for long-term monitoring studies. It is therefore necessary to afford protection to the site so as to minimize human impacts. With more extensive expeditions in the ice-free areas, pedestrian traffic is increasing in the vicinity of the exceptional stands of vegetation. A biological research hut has been constructed near the beach at the mouth of the valley, 250 m from the western boundary of the site, for the purpose of minimizing impact on the fauna, flora and terrain of the site. Pedestrian access has been limited and no vehicular access has been permitted since the construction of the hut. The valley has not been subjected to any environmental disturbance, with the exception of carefully controlled small-scale biological sampling of lake water, soil, lichens, mosses, invertebrates and sea birds.

(iii) Outline of research

Field surveys of geoscience and biological science have been carried out in the Langhovde area, including the site, since the first Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition in 1957. A preliminary biological survey of the site was made during JARE 15 and 16 (1973-75). This survey obtained information on the pristine state of the terrestrial ecosystem to compare with that influenced by man around Syowa Station on East Ongul Island. The studies were mainly undertaken in summer, and terminated after two seasons. A three year intensive study of the ecosystem commenced during the 1985-86 season. The present programme is planned to gain a deeper understanding of the terrestrial ecosystems in this site; it consists of several ecological studies on fauna and flora in relation to the climatic and edaphic environmental conditions. Long-term monitoring of fauna and flora in some selected areas has been conducted from the early stages of the investigation and will be continued.

(iv) Date of expiry of designation

31 December 1992. (v) Access points

None specified.

(vi) Pedestrian and vehicular routes

Pedestrians should enter the site only in connection with research activities. Surface vehicles should not be operated and helicopters should not land within the site.

(vii) Other kinds of scientific investigations which would not cause harmful interference

Research of other disciplines that would not affect the continuing biological studies for the protection of which the site has been designated.

(viii) Scientific sampling

This should be restricted to the minimum required in connection with the programme. No rock samples may be obtained.

(ix) Other restraints

None specified.





Management Plan

(i) Description of Site Physical Features

Svarthamaren is an ice free area (lat. 71°53°S, long. 5°10°E) situated in Mhlig-Hofmannfjella, Dronning Maud Land. The distance from the ice front is about 200 km. The site consists of about 3.9 km2 of the north-eastern facing cliffs and screes north of the summit of Svarthamaren. The location of the site and its boundaries are shown in the attached maps.

Topography. Svarthamaren is surrounded by ice and is about 6 km long along a NW-SE axis, with the highest point at 2195 m a.s.l. The northern part of the NE side is dominated by screes (slope 31-34°), extending 240 m upwards from the base of the mountain at about 1600 m a.s.1. Above these screes are almost vertical cliffs. Beneath the screes is a narrow area of flat ground bordered by glacier ice. The major feature of this site are two rock amphitheatres inhabited by breeding Antarctic petrels.

Geology and soils. The main rock types are coarse and medium grained charnockitoids and small amount of zenoliths. Banded gneisses, biotite amphibolites and granites of the amphibolites facies mineralogy are included in the charnockitoids. The slopes are covered by decomposed feltspathic sand.

Meteorology. Data exist for the period 13 January to 15 February 1985 (prevalent air temperature ranged between -5°C and -15°C). An automatic weather station was set up by the Norwegian Antarctic Research Expedition 1984/85 in an analogous situation at Jutulsessen, 100 km west of Svarthamaren, to obtain long-term weather statistics.

Biological Features

Terrestrial. The flora and vegetation at Svarthamaren are sparse compared with other areas in Mhlig Hofmannfjella and Gjelsvikfjella to the west of the site. This is apparently due to the elevation of Svarthamaren, the shortage of meltwater, and the excessive nutrient deposition from the bird colonies. The only plant species occurring in abundance, but peripherally to the most manured areas, is the foliose green alga, Prasiola crispa. There are a few lichen species on glacier-borne erratics 1-2 km away from the bird colonies: Candelariella hallettensis (= C. antarctica), Rhizoplaca (= Lecanora) melanophthalma, Umbilicaria spp., and Xanthoria spp. Areas covered with Prasiola are inhabited by Collembola (Cryptopygus sverdrupi) and a rich fauna of mites (Eupodes angardi, Tydeus erebus), protozoans, nematodes and rotifers.

Inland waters. A shallow pond measuring about 20 ° 30 m, lying below the middle and largest bird subcolony, is heavily polluted by petrel carcasses, and supports a strong growth of a yellowish-green unicellular algae, Chlamydomonas sp. Smaller concentrations of algae occur on the fringes of a small frozen lake below the northern face of the mountain. No invertebrates have been recorded.

Birds. There are important breeding colonies of seabirds. The north-east slopes of Svarthamaren are occupied by a densely populated colony of Antarctic petrels (Thalassoica antarctica), divided into three separate subcolonies. Less than ten breeding colonies of Antarctic petrels are described in the literature, and the Svarthamaren colony is by far the largest known. The colony was first closely examined in January/February 1985 by Norwegian ornithologists. The total number of breeding pairs was estimated to be 208,000. In addition, 500-1000 pairs of snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea) and 50 pairs of south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) were breeding in the area. The Antarctic petrels nest in the two rocky amphitheatres with a mean density of 0.75 nest per square metre. Most of the snow petrels nest in separate parts of the scree characterized by larger rocks. The south polar skuas nest on the narrow strip of flat, snow-free ground below the screes.

(ii) Reason for designation

The Svarthamaren Antarctic petrel colony is the largest known seabird colony situated inland on the Antarctic continent, and probably represents a significant proportion of the world population of this species.

The site is of exceptional scientific interest and provides for research on the Antarctic petrel, snow petrel and south polar skua and the study of adaptations in seabirds breeding inland on the Antarctic continent.

(iii) Outline of research

A study of the breeding biology and ecophysiological adaptations in the Antarctic petrel was initiated in 1985. This is planned to continue during future Norwegian Antarctic Expeditions. The accessibility of the site is limited by its location far inland.

The Antarctic petrel colony was discovered by Soviet geologists in January 1961 when a party landed in the area with an AN-2 aircraft and unexpectedly encountered thousands of birds. During the period 9 January to 16 February 1985 ten of the scientists of the Norwegian Antarctic Research Expedition worked in Mhlig-Hofmannfjella and Gjelsvikfjella, and established a base camp (Camp Norway 5) on the glacier approximately 500 m north-east of the northernmost slope of the site.

Three ornithologists, a botanist and an invertebrate zoologist worked in the area and researchers of other discipline surveyed this and nearby areas. Helicopter landings during the period were kept to a minimum. A wooden laboratory hut has been left to be used by future parties.

(iv) Date of expiry of designation

31 December 1997. (v) Access points

The site may be entered from any direction but access should cause minimum disturbance to the bird colonies.

(vi) Pedestrian and vehicular routes

Vehicles should not enter the Site. Pedestrians should not move through the populated areas except in the course of scientific investigations. Helicopters and low-flying aircraft should avoid the bird colonies in accordance with the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora.

(vii) Other kinds of scientific investigations which will not cause harmful interference

Any scientific investigation which will not cause significant disturbance to the biological programmes for which the site has been designated.

(viii) Scientific sampling

Taking samples of the bird population by killing, capture, or taking of eggs should be done only for a compelling scientific purpose and in accordance with the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora.

(ix) Other restraints

None specified.






Management Plan

(i) Description of Site Physical Features

Mt. Melbourne, North Victoria Land (lat. 74°21°S, long. 164°42°E) is situated between Wood Bay and Terra Nova Bay, on the west side of Ross Sea, and Campbell Glacier, about 10 km to the west. The site comprises all terrain above the 2200 m contour surrounding the main crater of Mt. Melbourne. The location of the site and its main features are shown in the attached maps.

Topography. In profile, Mt. Melbourne is an almost perfect low-angle volcanic cone rising to 2732 m a.s.l., showing only slight dissection and little or no glacial erosion. Many smaller basaltic cones and mounds occur near the base and on the flanks of the mountain. The summit caldera is about 1 km in diameter and forms a neve for a glacier flowing westward. The two areas of ice-free steaming ground (at A - ‘Cryptogam Ridge’ and B on the accompanying map) are on the edge of the caldera, with a third area (C) 250 m lower on the northern slopes. ‘Cryptogam Ridge’, on the southern side of the main crater, is an area of geothermal activity. About 300-400 m of this ridge is ice-free with the remainder covered by numerous ice hummocks. These hummocks are hollow, contain fumaroles and are 1-6 m in diameter and up to 4 m high.

Geology and soils. Mt. Melbourne is part of the McMurdo Volcanics which are a line of dormant and extinct volcanoes running along the coast of Victoria Land. The Mt. Melbourne area is more likely to be late Quaternary than late Tertiary in age, and the most recent eruption may have been only about 150 years ago. The mountain is a large low-angle strato-volcano containing basalt, trachyandesite and trachyte flows and including pyroclastics. Small basalt scoria cones are scattered around the base, some of which appear to be very recent as they are undissected. Several older slightly dissected cones occur on the summit caldera.

Surface ground temperatures vary markedly over distances of centimetres on ice-free warm ground, up to a recorded maximum of 47°C. Random probing to depths of 1 m and detailed temperature transects to depths of 15 cm indicate substrate temperatures of up to 60°C. Within the ice pinnacles soil surface temperatures range from 10°C to over 40°C. Frost heave occurs at some warm areas.

Although the substratum is classified as azonal, there are two distinct soil zones within some areas of hot ground probably caused by heat, moisture and gases from below. A typical profile comprises an upper 0-5 cm layer of dark sandy soil with a lower 6-30 cm horizon consisting of large lighter coloured scoria gravels. The upper layer contains organic matter in which there is microbiological activity, including cyanophaecean nitrogen fixation. No clay minerals have been detected.

Meteorology. No detailed data are available for the site. Field party records, during one week in late November 1984, indicate summer air temperatures in the caldera area of -6°C to -20°C, with an absolute minimum of -32°C. Biological Features

Terrestrial. The warmest areas of ground support patches of yellow-green moss, liverwort and brownish crusts of algae. The site contains an unique bryophyte community comprising the moss Campylopus pyriformis and the liverwort Cephaloziella exiliflora. C. pyriformis is not known elsewhere in the Antarctic biome, and C. exiliflora is known from only three other (low altitude) areas of continental Antarctica. Other than at a similar geothermal site at the summit of Mt. Erebus (protonemata only) this is the highest altitude at which bryophytes have been found in Antarctica. A single unidentified lichen has been observed as a component of black crusts over small areas of warm soil. The unusual occurrence of shallow peat is evidence of bryophyte growth having taken place over at least several decades.

Algar grow over wide areas of the warm ground and on the surface of warm rocks in some fumaroles. The microflora comprises a range of unicellular and filamentous algar, including the green Chroococcus sp. Tolypothrix sp. and Stigonema sp. and the cyanobacteria Mastigocladus laminosus and Pseudococcomyxa simplex. Thermotolerant and thermophilic micro-organisms have been isolated from the soil. The only invertebrate reported is a testate amoeba, Corythion dubium, amongst the vegetation. The occurrence of plant life is made possible only by the water droplets formed by the condensation of steam. Very small `pools' up to 50 cm2 and about 1 cm deep have been observed on occasions where dripping condensate gathered in small depressions.

Birds. No observations of birds have been made near the summit of the volcano.

(ii) Reason for designation

The site is of exceptional scientific interest because of its extensive ice-free geothermal areas, at high altitude, supporting a unique cryptogamic flora and microbiota and accumulations of organic matter. The closest documented, high altitude fumarolic ground is 400 km to the south of the summit of Mt. Erebus (see SSSI N 11, Tramway Ridge Mt. Erebus), but there the organisms differ significantly from those on Mt. Melbourne. Elsewhere in Antarctica vegetation on steam-warmed ground is known only in low altitude maritime areas of the Antarctic Peninsula region where, again, the vegetation differs significantly from the Mt. Melbourne community. The site is scientifically significant for botanists, microbiologists, volcanologists and geophysics. Uncontrolled human activity within this area could cause severe damage by trampling of plants, compacting soil and altering soil temperature gradients, changing rates of steam release and possibly causing the introduction of alien micro-organisms and cryptogamic plants.

(iii) Outline of research

There has been little previous research activity in the site. The studies that have been undertaken have involved investigations of geothermal and volcanic activity and a survey of the plant and microbial communities. Future research is likely to include studies of soil microbiology and microfauna, vegetation, volcanology and the geophysics of the area.

Mt. Melbourne was first sighted in 1841 by James Ross and first climbed in January 1967 by a New Zealand party. Since then the summit area has been visited by New Zealand parties in December 1972 and November 1984. The 1984 party surveyed the biota on ‘Cryptogam Ridge’. Brief visits were also made in January 1983 by a United States party and more recently by West German (1984/85) and Italian (1985/86) parties.

(iv) Date of expiry of designation

31 December 1997. (v) Access Points

Access to the site is normally by helicopter and landings should be made only on the glacier ice in the caldera, thereby avoiding any of the vegetated or other sensitive areas.

(vi) Pedestrian and vehicular routes

No vehicle should be used within the site. Pedestrians should avoid, whenever possible, walking on any obvious areas of warm ground or disturbing any vegetation. Entry to the ‘Cryptogam Ridge’ area of the site should be made only from either end of the ridge. Entering the ridge directly up its slopes should be avoided.

(vii) Other kinds of scientific investigations which would not cause harmful interference

Low impact studies having a minimal effect on the environment of the site.

(viii) Scientific sampling

Samples should be taken only for compelling scientific reasons.

(ix) Other restraints

To prevent the introduction of foreign organisms sterile protective overclothing should be worn and footwear should be sterilized before entering the site. Sterilized sampling equipment should also be used. All wastes should be removed from the site.





Management Plan

(1) Description of Site Physical Features

Marine Plain (23.4 km, lat. 68°38°S, long 78°08°E) opens into an arm of Crooked Fjord on the southern side of Mule Peninsula, the southernmost of the three major peninsulas which comprise the Vestfold Hills. The Vestfold Hills comprise an essentially ice-free oasis (approx. 400 km2) of bedrock, glacial debris, lakes and ponds at the eastern side of Prydz Bay, Princess Elizabeth Land.

The boundary of the site is as follows: commencing at lat. 68°36°30°S, long. 78°09°00°E it runs south-easterly to lat. 68°36°45°S, long. 78°10°30°E; thence south-easterly to lat. 68°37°30°S, long. 78°10°30°E, then south along the parallel of long. 78°12°30°E to its intersection by the low water mark on the northern shore of Crooked Fjord; from here it follows the low water mark of the northern shore of Crooked Fjord to its intersection with the meridian of long. 78°03°00°E; thence north along the meridian of long. 78°03°00°E to its intersection with the parallel of lat. 68°37°30°S, then north-easterly to lat. 68°37°00°S, long. 78°05°00°E, and finally north-eastwards to the point of commencement.

Topography. The site includes Burton Lake (surface at sea level) as a major component of the western part of the region. An extensive low level (less than 20 m above sea level) area occupies the centre of the site with a north-south orientation. In the north-east is another area below 20 m. Areas above 20 m are mostly low, rugged hills of Precambrian rock acting as divides between the lower part and characterized at their base by a marked change in their slope, probably representing an old (Holocene?) shoreline. The surface of the lower areas below 20 m is marked by a series of concave- to-the-south recessional moraine ridges.

Geology. The Precambrian rock consists for the most part of 3000 Ma gneisses from both igneous and metamorphic protoliths intruded in the course of at least three intervals between 1800 and 1375 Ma by numerous metabasalt dykes with a rough north-south orientation. These dykes are a major feature of the Vestfold Hills. Low lying areas consist of at least 8 melves of early Pliocene (40-46 million years) diatomites and, less commonly, lenticular sandstone overlying the Precambrian rock and occupying the sites of what were embayments in the early Pliocene. In the western part of the central area below 20 m a.s.l., the Pliocene deposits are overlain by a thin veneer of Holocene (6490 ° 130 y BP) glacial debris covering an area of 8-10 sq km, in places containing a few molluscs (Laternula elliptica King and Broderip) in situ. Low scarps in the Pliocene adjacent to small lakes have yielded remains of a new genus, species and probably family - all extinct - of dolphin, and there is evidence of another larger, fossil form.

Meteorology. No data are available from the area, but conditions are similar to those at Davis station, 6 km to the north-west.

Biological features

Terrestrial. Reconnaissance studies have reported few species and no significant stands of vegetation within the site.

Inland Waters. There are many small lakes and ponds.

Marine. Burton Lake opens to Crooked Fjord at its south-western corner and is affected by tides in summer. It has been the site of biological research for several years.

Birds and Seals. No bird or seal surveys have been conducted but it is relatively devoid of birds and sea mammals. Wilson's storm petrels (Oceanites oceanicus) and snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea) occur sporadically and nest in the Precambrian hills.

(ii) Reason for designation

The site is of exceptional scientific interest because of its vertebrate fossil fauna. In addition to the dominant important fossils such as molluscs and diatoms, which define the age of the Pliocene marine sediments, the site has yielded well-preserved vertebrate remains of a new species, genus and probably family of fossil dolphin and evidence of at least one other vertebrate species.

Burton Lake, as a hypersaline lake which is still in seasonal connection with the sea, presents the opportunity for important limnological research. It represents a unique stage in the biological and physico-chemical evolution of a terrestrial water body from the marine environment. Burton Lake together with several of the smaller lakes, provide important examples of the spectrum of lake types in the Vestfold Hills.

Davis (68°85°S, 77°58°E), a permanently occupied Australian scientific station, is located on Broad Peninsula, the central peninsula of the Vestfold Hills, 6 km to the north-west of the site. It is the focus of continuing biological, including limnological, studies within the Vestfold Hills. As a result of its proximity to Davis station, the scientific value of the site could be diminished by accidental interference. The site lies on the frequently used pedestrian route to the Mule Peninsula lakes (Clear, Laternula, Cemetery and McCallum) from Ellis Rapids and it is critical that fossil fauna should be protected from unrecorded sampling or collection.

(iii) Outline of research

A paleontological research programme has commenced following the initial discovery of vertebrate fossils at the site in 1985. The programme consists of the collection of well-preserved fossil molluscs and diatoms and, in particular, fossil vertebrates, with the aim of documenting the fauna of the epoch. Oxygen isotope studies on the well-preserved bivalve fauna will be employed to help quantify water temperature at that time.

Burton Lake is the subject of detailed year-round research as part of a programme aimed at understanding the evolution of the hydrological system in the Vestfold Hills, by looking at various stages of isolation from the marine environment.

(iv) Date of expiry of designation

31 December 1997

(v) Access points

Access should, where possible, be from the sea ice in Ellis Fjord or Crooked Fjord, or by helicopter at places where no disturbance can be caused by the aircraft to water bodies, vegetation or sediment deposits. If these means of access are not possible, access by land, either by vehicle or on foot, should be via Ellis Rapids at the eastern end of Ellis Fjord.

(vi) Pedestrian and vehicular routes

Vehicles should not be used within the site except for over-snow travel by motorized toboggan. Pedestrians or vehicles must not damage areas of vegetation, or disturb steep inclines marking sediment outcrops or the lake margins near these outcrops.

(vii) Other kinds of scientific investigations which would not cause harmful interference

Research on the ecology of Wilson's storm Petrels, snow petrels, mosses and lichens, and other biota, and investigation of water bodies other than Burton Lake. Other scientific investigations which do not disturb the paleontological, ecological and limnological programmes being conducted.

(viii) Scientific sampling

Scientific sampling should be restricted to that required for the programmes described in (iii) and (vii) above.

(ix) Other restraints

All waste materials taken into, or generated within the Site should be removed as soon as practicable. No fuel depots should be made within the Site, nor should refuelling operations be undertaken. No permanent buildings should be erected within the Site. Power boats should not be used on Burton Lake and use of other boats should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support programmes consistent with this plan.





Management Plan

(i) Description of the Site Physical Features

The site comprises two small areas of benthic habitat in Chile Bay located as follows:

Benthic habitat A: Between 50 and 100 m depths and the following coordinates:

Lat. 62°28.9°S Long. 59°41°12°W Lat. 62°29.3°S Long. 59°41°43°W

Benthic habitat B: Between 100 and 200 m depths and between the following coordinates:

Lat. 62°28.3°S Long. 59°40°15°W Lat. 62°28.7°S Long. 59°40°47°W

The bottom of both sites consists of coarse to fine silt. The lithological and mineralogical composition of the sediments show their provenance from the outcrops and littoral deposits surrounding Chile Bay, i.e., porphyritic andesite, aphanitic andesite, diorite and andesitic volcanic breccia and tuffs. This material is transported to the coastline mainly by glaciers, solifluction and mud flows. These processes are intensified in the inner part of the bay where the glacier terminates. Chile Bay has a transverse submarine barrier,possibly a submerged moraine separating habitats A and B and dividing the bay into an inner and an outer part. Sediments in the inner bay are protected from the action of waves and currents, thereby preserving the grain size distribution, sorting and shape of the contained material.

Biological Features

The benthic assemblages have high species diversity and biomass. Bottom topography and sediment features influence the structure of the communities and distribution pattern. Two assemblages have been recognized: one, dominated by the polychaete Maldane sarsi antarctica, is located in the outer part of the bay, mainly below 100 m depth; other characteristic species are Genaxinus bongranii, Cyamonactra denticulum, Typhlotanais greenwichensis and Pycogonida spp. The inner assemblage, on the other hand, is not dominated by any one species but contains Yoldia eightsii and Eudorella gracilor as characteristic fauna.

(ii) Reason for designation

In Chile Bay there has been continued quantitative and qualitative benthic research since 1967. Data being accumulated provide a baseline for long-term investigations. The site is of exceptional scientific interest and therefore requires long-term protection for possible harmful interference.

(iii) Outline of research

A long-term research program was started in 1967 in connection with the study of benthic fauna re-establishment within Port Foster, Deception Island, following the volcanic eruption of December 1967. Chile Bay has been designated a control area. These studies are performed yearly in the summer. Community studies to observe biota changes will be augmented with other relevant studies to suit the requirements of a long-term biological monitoring programme.

(iv) Date of expiry of designation

31 December 1997. (v) Access Points

Although access points as such are not applicable, free passage of ships through these areas is not in any way prejudiced.

(vi) Pedestrian and vehicular routes

Not applicable

(vii) Other kinds of scientific investigations that would not cause harmful interference

Scientific research other than that disturbing benthic habitats and communities.

(viii) Scientific sampling

Samples from the benthic habitats should be taken only for compelling scientific purposes.

(ix) Other restraints

The dumping of waste from ships and bottom hauling should be avoided. Anchoring should be avoided except in compelling circumstances. Siting of bottom devices should be avoided.




Management Plan

(i) Description of the Site Physical Features

The site comprises two small areas of benthic habitat located in Port Foster as follows:

Benthic habitat A: Between 50 and 150 m depths and the coordinates:

Lat. 62°55.5°S Long. 60°38°00°W Lat. 62°56.2°S Long. 60°37°00°W

Benthic habitat B: Between 100 and 150 m depths and the coordinates:

Lat. 62°57.2°S Long. 60°37°20°W Lat. 62°57.9°S Long. 60°36°20°W

Deception Island is a caldera formed by subsidence of a group of Cenozoic volcanoes superimposed along radial faults. Port Foster is an almost entirely enclosed body of water which receives large volumes of fresh water luring periods of melt. In several places there is geothermal activity. The bottom of habitat A consists of coarse to medium-sized, poorly sorted volcanic sediment, and that of habitat B of medium to fine, better sorted volcanic ash.

Biological Features

The composition of the benthic assemblages has varied greatly since the volcanic eruption of December 1967. The most recent data indicate a high dominance of polychaetes, both in terms of number and biomass. The most conspicuous macrofauna in dredge samples include the nemerteans Lineus sp and Paraborlasia corrugatus, the isopod Serolis kemp: the bivalve Yoldia eightsii, the echinoids Abatus agassizi and Sterechinus neumayeri, the asteroids Lysasterias perrieri and Odontaster validus, the ophiuroid Ophionotus victoriae and the holothurian Ypsilothuria sp.

(ii) Reason for designation

The area is of exceptional ecological interest because of its actively volcanic character. The two habitat areas are subject to long-term research programmes and the purpose in designating them is, as far as is possible, to reduce the risk of accidental interference which could jeopardize these scientific investigations.

(iii) Outline of research

Following the volcanic eruption of December 1967, at Deception Island a long-term programme of research was initiated at Port Foster to study the mechanism and paths of the re-establishment of the benthic communities. Community studies to observe biota changes, augmented with other relevant studies to suit the requirement of a long-term biological monitoring programme, are performed periodically.

(iv) Date of expiry of designation

31 December 1997

(v) Access Points

Although access points as such are not designated, free passage of ships through these areas is not in any way prejudiced.

(vi) Pedestrian and vehicular routes

Not applicable

(vii) Other kinds of scientific investigation that would not cause harmful interference

Scientific research other than that disturbing benthic habitats and communities.

(viii) Scientific sampling

Samples from the benthic habitats should be taken only for compelling scientific purposes.

(ix) Other restraints

The dumping of waste from ships and bottom trawling should be avoided. Anchoring should be avoided except in compelling circumstances. Siting of bottom devices should be avoided.




Management Plan

(i) Description of Site Physical features

Doumer Island lies at the south-west entrances to Neumayer Channel. It is separated from Wiencke Island by the Peltier Channel. South Bay lies on the south coast of Doumer Island. The site consists of a small area of coastal and subtidal benthos down to 45 m depth as follows:

Lat. 64°51°42°S to the North, between Long. 63°34°00°W and Long. 63°35°20°W, and to the South by a diagonal line that starts at a point 100 m north of the Refuge (Sub-base Yelcho) on the southern shore of South Bay and extends to Lat. 64°51°58°S and Long. 63°34°00°W Boundaries are shown on the attached map.

Biological Features

Four different kinds of bottom surface have been described: rocky with algae growth, from 0 to 30 m depth; predominantly rock, covered by algae, silt and large quantities of sponges, from 30 to 110 m depth; mixed bottoms with predominantly deposits of mud and few rock outcrops with sponges, from 100 to 150 m depth; soft bottoms of silt and mud, from 150 to 200 m depth, corresponding to the deepest depression, occur near the centre of the bay just outside the site. The benthic macrofauna richness increases with depth and is accentuated in bottoms with a steep slope. Ice scour exerts a strong influence on the patterns of distribution and the abundance of benthic fauna. Seals, in particular Weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddellii, visit the area to feed. Cetaceans, like killer whales, Orcinus orca and humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, enter the bay. Manu Antarctic seabirds occur transiently in the site.

(ii) Reason for designation

The site is the subject of a long-term research programme on marine ecology and the purpose of designating it is to reduce, as far as is possible, the risk of accidental interference which might jeopardize these scientific investigations.

(iii) Outline of research

The research covers the study of the relationships of the marine organisms in the area. This was started by SCUBA diving in 1972. Since 1981 advanced experiments to elucidate community structure and functioning have been in progress and will continue in the future.

(iv) Date of expiry of designation

31 December 1997

(v) Access points

None specified. The area is not affected by the passage of boats.

(vi) Pedestrian and vehicular routes

Not applicable

(vii) Other kinds of scientific investigation that would not cause harmful interference

Scientific research other than that disturbing benthic habitats and communities.

(viii) Scientific sampling

Collection of samples should be made only for compelling scientific purposes.

(ix) Other restraints

The dumping of wastes from ships or boats and bottom trawling should be avoided. Anchoring should be avoided except for compelling reasons.




The Representatives,

Recalling Article II of the Antarctic Treaty, Recommendation VII-3 and VIII-3;

Conscious of the need to protect marine scientific investigations which might suffer from willful or accidental interference;

Desiring to protect inshore marine sites of scientific interest where harmful interference is generally recognized to be likely;

Recognizing the need to protect such marine scientific investigations;

Recognizing that a limited number of inshore marine sites of exceptional scientific interest may require long-term protection from harmful interference;

Recommend to their Governments that:

1. They invite SCAR through their National Committees, to have regard to the following when considering proposals for marine Sites of Special Scientific Interest:

(a) Marine sites should be proposed only when:

(i) marine scientific investigations are being carried out or are planned to begin before the following meeting of SCAR, and there is a demonstrable risk of interference which would jeopardize those scientific investigations; or

(ii) they are of exceptional scientific interest and therefore require a measure of long-term protection from harmful interference.

(b) Marine sites should be proposed for designation up to a specified date, which may be extended following a review by SCAR;

(c) Proposals for the designation of marine sites should be accompanied by management plans which should include inter alia, and where applicable, the following details:

(i) A description of the marine site, together with a map delimiting its boundaries;

(ii) A statement setting out the reasons in conformity with paragraphs 1 (a) (i) and (ii) above for designation of the marine site;

(iii) A description of the scientific investigations being carried out or planned;

(iv) The proposed date at which the designation will expire unless extended;

(v) If adjacent to the coast, proposed points of access;

(vi) Other kinds of scientific investigations which would not cause harmful interference with the investigations described at paragraph (c) (iii) above;

(vii) Whether specific kinds of scientific sampling may take place and guidelines for such sampling.

2. They invite SCAR, through their National Committees to initiate review of those marine sites whose designation is likely to terminate before the second following Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting.

3. They request their national offices responsible for Antarctic activities to maintain a record of activities within each marine site of Special Scientific Interest in which their scientists are active.

4. Scientists wishing to work within marine Sites of Special Scientific Interest should consult their national offices responsible for Antarctic activities to obtain authorization.


The Representatives,

Recalling Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty and Recommendations VI-3, X-3 and XII-1;

Noting the Final Report of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Executive Council Working Group on Antarctic Meteorology, Fourth Session (EC/WGAM-IV), (September 1986) and subsequent action taken by the WMO Tenth Congress (May 1987), relating to Antarctic Meteorology.

Recommend to their Governments that:

1. Having regard to Recommendations 6 and 8 of EC/WGAM-IV (reproduced at Annex H to the Final Report of the XIVth Consultative Meeting), they accept Annex 1 to this Recommendation as a current statement of the Basic Synoptic Network and the Network of Climat and Climat Temp Reporting Stations in the Antarctic and that, as a consequence, Annex I to Recommendation XII-1 be withdrawn;

2. Annexes 1, 2 and 3 to Recommendation X-3 and Annexes 2 and 3 to Recommendation XII-1 be withdrawn and replaced by Annexes 2 and 3 to this Recommendation as a current statement of the ‘Existing links for the daily international exchange of meteorological data within the Antarctic’ and the ‘Principal routes by which Antarctic meteorological data enter the GTS’ (Global Telecommunications System of the WMO World Weather Watch);

3. Annexes I and II to Recommendation VI-3 be withdrawn and replaced by Annexes 4 and 5 to this Recommendation as current statements of Requirements for Observational Data and Requirements for Processed Information;

4. Having regard to paragraph 4.1 and Annex I to the Final Report of EC/WGAM-IV (reproduced at Annex I to the Final Report of ATCM XIV), they:

(a) respond expeditiously in respect of paragraph 288, sub-paragraphs (a) and (e);

(b) invite WMO to identify such areas of difficulty as there may be in respect of the transmission of meteorological data inside Antarctica, between the Antarctic and the outside world (in both directions) and in the operation of the GTS and to use all feasible means, through the exercise of their good offices, to see if such difficulties can be resolved;

(c) also be ready to consider a joint meeting of WMO and SCAR telecommunication experts, convened in accordance with Recommendation IV-24, in the light of any report which may be prepared reflecting action taken in accordance with sub-paragraph (b) above;

(d) respond positively to requests received in accordance with sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of paragraph 289, subject to overriding scientific, administrative or budgetary considerations;

(e) request WMO, when passing to Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties their recommendations arrived at in accordance with sub-paragraph (d) of paragraph 289, to set out in specific terms the technical functions, capacities and services of proposed ‘Antarctic Meteorological Centres’ and WMO's view on the justification for the designation of each proposed Centre;

(f) be prepared to respond to any request for designation received from WMO, in accordance with sub-paragraph (e) of paragraph 289, on the understanding that any such designations and activities carried out accordingly, will be subject to Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty.











McMurdo, Dumont d'Urville, Casey, Davis, Mawson, Syowa, Bellingahausen, Molodernaja, Frei, Marambio, Great Wall, Rothera, Santiago, Buenos Aires, Pretoria, Wellington, Melbourne, Mecca, Washington, Blackwell, Tokyo, New Delhi, Esperanza, Orcadas, Matienzo, Belgrano, Jubany, Marambio, San Martin, Prat, O'Higgins, Great Wall, Dinmet - Uruguay, Arctowski, SANAE, Neumayer, Dakshin Gangtori, Syowa, Mizuho, Mawson, Amundsen-Scott, Palmer (Scott Base)


McMurdo, Dumont d'Urville, Casey, Davis, Syowa, Bellingahausen, Molodernaja, Frei, Marambio, Great Wall, Rothera, Santiago, Buenos Aires, Pretoria, Wellington, Mecca, Washington, Blackwell, Tokyo New Delhi, Requirements of the observational data Part II, Halley, Signy, Rothera Faraday Fossil Bluff, Billingshausen, Russkaya, Novolazarevskaja, Molodeznaja, Mirnyj, Vostok, Leningradskaja, Region I Selection, Blocks 61, 67, 68, South of 20 S, Region III Selection, Blocks 85, 37, 58, Region V Selection, Blocks 91, 93, 95 All Southern Hemisphere


ANNEX 5 Marine Forecase, Surface, Upper Air Analyses, and Prognoses, Hazardous Weather Warnings, Pretoria, Bracknell, Punta Arenos, Marambio, Stations, All Antarctica, Processed Data by Centres Outside the Treaty Area From Anatarctic Stations, Melbourne, Dumont d'Urville, Frei, McMrudo, Mawson, Casey, Davis, Molodeznaja, Buenos Aires, Marambio, Arctowski, Wellington, Christchurch, Bracknell, Rothera, Nairobi, Molodeznaja, Rio de Janeiro, Neph. Aral, CLIMAT, CLIMAT TEMP, Terminal Forecase, Bellingshausen Sea, Drake Passage, Weddell Sea, Scotia Sea,


Molodernaja, Marambio, Molodeznaja, Neumayer, Surface, Upper Air Anayses and Prognoses, Hazardous Weather Warnings, Marine Forecase, McMurdo, Molodeznaja, Frei, Dumont d'Urville, Pole, Syowa, Bellingshausen, Novolazarevskaja, Vostok, Jirnyj, Mawson, Artowski, Dakshin Gangtori, Syowa, All UK ANtarctic stations, Palmer, Neph. Aral CLIMAT, CLIMAT TEM, Terminal Forecase, Bellingahausen Sea, Drake Passage, Weddel Sea Scotia Sea



The Representatives,

Recalling Recommendations I-IX, V-4, VI-14, VII-9, XII-7 and XIII-16;

Recommend to their Governments that the following historic monuments be added to the ‘List of Historic Monuments Identified and Described by the Proposing Government or Governments’ annexed to Recommendation VII-9 and that, thereafter, they be accorded the respect and protection required by the Recommendations recalled above:

53. Monoliths and Commemorative Plaques celebrating the rescue of survivors of the British ship ‘Endurance’ by the Chilean Navy cutter ‘Yelcho’ displaying the following words:

‘Here, on August 30th., 1916, the Chilean Navy cutter ‘Yelcho’ commanded by Pilot Luis Pardo Villaln rescued the 22 men from the Shackleton Expedition who survived the wreck of the ‘Endurance’ living for four and one-half months in this Island.’

The Monolith and the plaques have been placed on Elephant Island (61°03° Lat. S., 54°50° Long. W.) and their replicas on the Chilean bases ‘Arturo Prat’ (62°30° Lat. S., 59°49° Long. W.) and ‘Lieutenant Rodolfo Marsh’ (62°12° Lat. S., 62°12° Long. W.).


The Representatives,

Recalling Recommendation I-X;

Recognizing the importance of safe air operations in the Antarctic and:

(i) that there is a wide range of problems in air operations which are becoming more important and urgent with increasing activity;

(ii) that the principal body of knowledge and experience of Antarctic air operations, and its current problems, lies with the operators of national Antarctic programmes.

Recommend to their Governments that:

1. Arrangements be made for a meeting of experts in accordance with Recommendation IV-24, to be held well in advance of the Fifteenth Consultative Meeting, at a time and place to be decided through diplomatic channels, and that the host Government for the XVth Consultative Meeting should initiate the necessary consultations. Delegations from Consultative Parties to the meeting should include experts with direct experience in Antarctic operations. In the course of preparing for the meeting, consideration shall be given to the invitation of ICAO and other experts to attend the meeting in accordance with paragraph 1 of Recommendation IV-24 (e.g. WMO, ITU);

2. The terms of reference for the meeting shall be to provide for:

(i) avoidance of inter-operator air-incidents;

(ii) mutual assistance in the course of Antarctic operations, including medical evacuations;

(iii) co-ordinated measures to improve search and rescue procedures.

3. In the fulfillment of these terms of reference, the meeting shall have regard to:

(i) existing systems for safe air operations;

(ii) means of mutually co-ordinating air traffic movements in Antarctica;

(iii) means of ensuring adequate communications between operators originating air traffic movements, between aircraft and stations in the vicinity of their operations and between aircraft, including consideration of the possible advantages of satellite communications and adoption of predetermined radio frequencies;

(iv) means of rapidly initiating search and rescue operations, including the advantages of using common dedicated calling frequencies and of co-ordinating subsequent operations;

(v) how best to ensure that all operators in the Antarctic are aware of air-operational safety requirements and search and rescue procedures;

(vi) air operations from ships.

4. In order to facilitate the work of the Meeting they provide relevant information to the host Government, preferably 3 months in advance of the meeting, for circulation to other Consultative Parties. An indicative list of such information is set out in the Annex to this recommendation.

5. The report of the meeting be circulated to all Consultative Parties and be referred for consideration at the XVth Consultative Meeting in accordance with Paragraphs 3 and 4 of Recommendation IV-24. ANNEX

The following information is an indicative list of the relevant information to be circulated to all Consultative Parties prior to the Meeting of Experts on Air Safety in Antarctica as recommended at the XIVth Consultative Meeting:

(i) Current areas of air operation;

(ii) Period and frequency of operation;

(iii) Types of aircraft used and their navigation and communication equipment;

(iv) Operating altitudes and ranges;

(v) Other airborne devices (e.g. balloons, rockets) or other uses of air space in Antarctica;

(vi) Runway length, width, slope, orientation, surface type and condition, load capacity and markings;

(vii) Radio Direction Finding and Distance Measuring equipment;

(viii) Navigation aids, including beacon power and frequencies and communications equipment;

(ix) Features in the vicinity of landing facilities which could be hazardous to aircraft;

(x) Prevailing weather conditions of significance to air operations in the vicinity of landing facilities;

(xi) Service facilities;

(xii) Type and specification of fuel used;

(xiii) Operating times of landing and communication facilities;

(xiv) Available air navigation charts and published visual and instrument approach procedures;

(xv) Medical facilities available, including medical personnel, and whether stations have trained search and rescue personnel.


Recalling Article II of the Antarctic Treaty and Recommendations relating to co-operation with regard to Antarctic logistics (II-V, III-3, IV-25) and Antarctic meteorology and telecommunication (I-II, II-3, III-5, IV-26, V-2, VI-1, VI-3, VII-7, IX-3, X-3, XII-1, XII-2);

Aware of numerous cases when ships have been lost or beset in Antarctic sea ice for long periods;


(i) of increasing interest in the science and operational relevance of Antarctic meteorology and sea ice studies on the part of the WMO, SCAR, and IOC as indicated by existing research projects of these international bodies;

(ii) of advances in satellite monitoring of marine meteorological and sea ice conditions and of the consequent improvement in the quality, reliability and content of their assessment and prediction;

(iii) of the strides that have been made in predicting optimal ship routings with respect to marine meteorological and sea ice conditions;

(iv) of existing marine meteorological and sea ice services;

Considering advances in telecommunication and the exchange of marine meteorological and sea ice information;

Desiring to apply the benefits of these developments to the improvement of real time data utilization and prediction of weather, sea ice, currents and sea-state conditions (particularly in the sea ice zone) with a view to further increasing the efficiency and the safety of navigation;

Recommend to their Governments that:

1. They invite WMO and SCAR (through their Permanent Representatives and their National Committees, respectively) to consider ways of improving or developing operational marine meteorological and sea ice information services in the Treaty Area of the Southern Ocean;

2. Any such consideration should take into account the Implementation Programme for the Antarctic described in Annex I of the Final Report of the Fourth Session of the EC Working Group on Antarctic Meteorology (September 1986), and subsequent pertinent decisions of the Tenth WMO Congress (May 1987);

3. Such consideration be coordinated with the IOC;

4. After receiving a response from WMO and SCAR, they convene, if necessary, in accordance with Recommendation IV-24, a Meeting of Experts to consider how an improved approach to marine meteorological and sea ice information services in the Treaty Area of the Southern Ocean could be implemented.