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1911: Convention Respecting Measures For The Preservation And Protection Of The Fur Seals In The North Pacific Ocean

Related Lineage is: North Pacific Fur Seals
  Provision  First Coders Codes  Second Coders Codes 
Title.1  Convention Respecting Measures For The Preservation And Protection Of The Fur Seals In The North Pacific Ocean  TITL   
Src.1  Source: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/dfat/treaties/1913/6.html (15 April 2004)  SRC   
Pre.1  His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, the United States of America, His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, being desirous of adopting effective means for the preservation and protection of the fur seals which frequent the waters of the North Pacific Ocean, have resolved to conclude a Convention for the purpose, and to that end have named as their Plenipotentiaries:  GOAL DESC   
Pre.2  [Names of plenipotentiaries not listed here.]     
Pre.3  Who, after having communicated to one another their respective full powers, which were found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon the following Articles:     
Art.1  Article 1  SUBS IMPL   
Art.1.1x  The High Contracting Parties mutually and reciprocally agree that their citizens and subjects respectively, and all persons subject to their laws and treaties, and their vessels, shall be prohibited, while this Convention remains in force, from engaging in pelagic sealing in the waters of the North Pacific Ocean, north of the thirtieth parallel of north latitude and including the Seas of Bering, Kamchatka, Okhotsk and Japan, and that every person and vessel offending against such prohibition may be seized, except within the territorial jurisdiction of one of the other Powers, and detained by the naval or other duly commissioned officers of any of the Parties to this Convention, to be delivered as soon as practicable to an authorised official of their own nation at the nearest point to the place of seizure, or elsewhere as may be mutually agreed upon; and that the authorities of the nation to which such person or vessel belongs alone shall have jurisdiction to try the offence and impose the penalties for the same; and that the witnesses and proofs necessary to establish the offence, so far as they are under the control of any of the Parties to this Convention, shall also be furnished with all reasonable promptitude to the proper authorities having jurisdiction to try the offence.     
Art.2  Article 2  SUBS   
Art.2.1x  Each of the High Contracting Parties further agrees that no person or vessel shall be permitted to use any of its ports or harbours or any part of its territory for any purposes whatsoever connected with the operations of pelagic sealing in the waters within the protected area mentioned in Article 1.     
Art.3  Article 3  SUBS   
Art.3.1x  Each of the High Contracting Parties further agrees that no sealskins taken in the waters of the North Pacific Ocean within the protected area mentioned in Article 1, and no sealskins identified as the species known as Callorhinus alascanus, Callorhinus ursinus and Callorhinus kurilensis, and belonging to the American, Russian or Japanese herds, except such as are taken under the authority of the respective Powers to which the breeding grounds of such herds belong and have been officially marked and certified as having been so taken, shall be permitted to be imported or brought into the territory of any of the Parties to this Convention.     
Art.4  Article 4     
Art.4.1x  It is further agreed that the provisions of this Convention shall not apply to Indians, Ainos, Aleuts, or other aborigines dwelling on the coast of the waters mentioned in Article 1, who carry on pelagic sealing in canoes not transported by or used in connection with other vessels, and propelled entirely by oars, paddles or sails, and manned by not more than five persons each, in the way hitherto practised and without the use of firearms; provided that such aborigines are not in the employment of other persons, or under contract to deliver the skins to any person.  SOVR   
Art.5  Article 5  SUBS   
Art.5.1x  Each of the High Contracting Parties agrees that it will not permit its citizens or subjects or their vessels to kill, capture or pursue beyond the distance of three miles from the shore line of its territories sea otters in any part of the waters mentioned in Article 1 of this Convention.     
Art.6  Article 6  IMPL   
Art.6.1x  Each of the High Contracting Parties agrees to enact and enforce such legislation as may be necessary to make effective the foregoing provisions with appropriate penalties for violations thereof.     
Art.7  Article 7  IMPL   
Art.7.1x  It is agreed on the part of the United States, Japan and Russia that each respectively will maintain a guard or patrol in the waters frequented by the seal herd in the protection of which it is especially interested, so far as may be necessary for the enforcement of the foregoing provisions.     
Art.8  Article 8  SUBS   
Art.8.1x  All of the High Contracting Parties agree to cooperate with each other in taking such measures as may be appropriate and available for the purpose of preventing pelagic sealing in the prohibited area mentioned in Article 1.     
Art.9  Article 9  DEFN   
Art.9.1x  The term pelagic sealing is hereby defined for the purposes of this Convention as meaning the killing, capturing or pursuing in any manner whatsoever of fur seals at sea.     
Art.10  Article 10  IMPL   
Art.10.1x  The United States agrees that of the total number of sealskins taken annually under the authority of the United States upon the Pribilof Islands or any other islands or shores of the waters mentioned in Article 1 subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to which any seal herds hereafter resort, there shall be delivered at the Pribilof Islands at the end of each season fifteen percent (15%) gross in number and value thereof to an authorised agent of the Canadian Government and fifteen percent (15%) gross in number and value thereof to an authorised agent of the Japanese Government; provided, however, that nothing herein contained shall restrict the right of the United States at any time and from time to time to suspend altogether the taking of sealskins on such islands or shores subject to its jurisdiction, and to impose such restrictions and regulations upon the total number of skins to be taken in any season and the manner and times and places of taking them as may seem necessary to protect and preserve the seal herd or to increase its number.  SOVR   
Art.11  Article 11  IMPL DISP   
Art.11.1x  The United States further agrees to pay the sum of two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000) to Great Britain and the sum of two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000) to Japan when this Convention goes into effect, as an advance payment in each case in lieu of such number of fur-seal skins to which Great Britain and Japan respectively would be entitled under the provisions of this Convention as would be equivalent in each case to two hundred thousand dollars ($200,000) reckoned at their market value at London at the date of their delivery before dressing and curing and less cost of transportation from the Pribilof Islands, such market value in case of dispute to be determined by an umpire to be agreed upon by the United States and Great Britain, or by the United States and Japan, as the case may be, which skins shall be retained by the United States in satisfaction of such payments.     
Art.11.2x  The United States further agrees that the British and Japanese share respectively of the sealskins taken from the American herd under the terms of this Convention shall be not less than one thousand (1,000) each in any year even if such number is more than fifteen percent (15%) of the number to which the authorised killing is restricted in such year, unless the killing of seals in such year or years shall have been absolutely prohibited by the United States for all purposes except to supply food, clothing, and boat skins for the natives on the islands, in which case the United States agrees to pay to Great Britain and to Japan each the sum of ten thousand dollars ($10,000) annually in lieu of any share of skins during the years when no killing is allowed; and Great Britain agrees, and Japan agrees, that after deducting the skins of their respective shares, which are to be retained by the United States as above provided to reimburse itself for the advance payment aforesaid, the United States shall be entitled to reimburse itself for any annual payments made as herein required, by retaining an additional number of sealskins from the British and Japanese shares respectively over and above the specified minimum allowance of one thousand (1,000) skins in any subsequent year or years when killing is again resumed, until the whole number of skins retained shall equal, reckoned at their market value determined as above provided for, the entire amount so paid, with interest at the rate of four percent (4%) per annum.  SOVR   
Art.11.3x  If, however, the total number of seals frequenting the United States islands in any year falls below one hundred thousand (100,000), enumerated by official count, then all killing, excepting the inconsiderable supply necessary for the support of the natives as above noted, may be suspended without allowance of skins or payment of money equivalent until the number of such seals again exceeds one hundred thousand (100,000), enumerated in like manner.  SOVR   
Art.12  Article 12  IMPL   
Art.12.1x  It is agreed on the part of Russia that of the total number of sealskins taken annually upon the Commander Islands, or any other island or shores of the waters defined in Article 1 subject to the jurisdiction of Russia to which any seal herds hereafter resort, there shall be delivered at the Commander Islands at the end of each season fifteen percent (15%) gross in number and value thereof to an authorised agent of the Canadian Government, and fifteen percent (15%) gross in number and value thereof to an authorised agent of the Japanese Government; provided, however, that nothing herein contained shall restrict the right of Russia at any time and from time to time during the first five years of the term of this Convention to suspend altogether the taking of sealskins on such islands or shores subject to its jurisdiction, and to impose during the term of this Convention such restrictions and regulations upon the total number of skins to be taken in any season, and the manner and times and places of taking them as may seem necessary to preserve and protect the Russian seal herd, or to increase its number; but it is agreed, nevertheless, on the part of Russia that during the last ten years of the term of this Convention not less than five percent (5%) of the total number of seals on the Russian rookeries and hauling grounds will be killed annually, provided that said five percent (5%) does not exceed eighty-five percent (85%) of the three-year-old male seals hauling in such year.  SOVR   
Art.12.2x  If, however, the total number of seals frequenting the Russian islands in any year falls below eighteen thousand (18,000) enumerated by official count, then the allowance of skins mentioned above and all killing of seals except such as may be necessary for the support of the natives on the islands may be suspended until the number of such seals again exceeds eighteen thousand (18,000) enumerated in like manner.  SOVR   
Art.13  Article 13  IMPL   
Art.13.1x  It is agreed on the part of Japan that of the total number of sealskins taken annually upon Robben Island, or any other islands or shores of the waters defined in Article 1 subject to the jurisdiction of Japan to which any seal herds hereafter resort, there shall be delivered at Robben Island at the end of each season ten percent (10%) gross in number and value thereof to an authorised agent of the United States Government, ten percent (10%) gross in number and value thereof to an authorised agent of the Canadian Government, and ten percent (10%) gross in number and value thereof to an authorised agent of the Russian Government; provided, however, that nothing herein contained shall restrict the right of Japan at any time and from time to time during the first five years of the term of this Convention to suspend altogether the taking of sealskins on such islands or shores subject to its jurisdiction, and to impose during the term of this Convention such restrictions and regulations upon the total number of skins to be taken in any season, and the manner and times and places of taking them as may seem necessary to preserve and protect the Japanese herd, or to increase its number; but it is agreed, nevertheless, on the part of Japan that during the last ten years of the term of this Convention not less than five percent (5%) of the total number of seals on the Japanese rookeries and hauling grounds will be killed annually, provided that said five percent (5%) does not exceed eighty-five percent (85%) of the three-year-old male seals hauling in such year.  SOVR   
Art.13.2x  If, however, the total number of seals frequenting the Japanese islands in any year falls below six thousand five hundred (6,500) enumerated by official count, then the allowance of skins mentioned above and all killing of seals except such as may be necessary for the support of the natives on the islands may be suspended until the number of such seals again exceeds six thousand five hundred (6,500) enumerated in like manner.  SOVR   
Art.14  Article 14  IMPL   
Art.14.1x  It is agreed on the part of Great Britain that in case any seal herd hereafter resorts to any islands or shores of the waters defined in Article 1 subject to the jurisdiction of Great Britain, there shall be delivered at the end of each season during the term of this Convention ten percent (10%) gross in number and value of the total number of sealskins annually taken from such herd to an authorised agent of the United States Government, ten percent (10%) gross in number and value of the total number of sealskins annually taken from such herd to an authorised agent of the Japanese Government, and ten percent (10%) gross in number and value of the total number of sealskins annually taken from such herd to an authorised agent of the Russian Government.     
Art.15  Article 15     
Art.15.1x  It is further agreed between the United States and Great Britain that the provisions of this Convention shall supersede, in so far as they are inconsistent therewith or in duplication thereof, the provisions of the treaty relating to the fur seals, entered into between the United States and Great Britain on 7 February 1911.  SOVR   
Art.16  Article 16  EIF   
Art.16.1x  This Convention shall go into effect upon 15 December 1911 and shall continue in force for a period of fifteen (15) years from that date, and thereafter until terminated by twelve (12) months' written notice given by one or more of the Parties to all of the others, which notice may be given at the expiration of fourteen years or at any time afterwards, and it is agreed that at any time prior to the termination of this Convention, upon the request of any one of the High Contracting Parties, a conference shall be held forthwith between representatives of all the Parties hereto, to consider and if possible agree upon a further extension of this Convention with such additions and modifications, if any, as may be found desirable.     
Art.17  Article 17  MEMB   
Art.17.1x  This Convention shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, by His Britannic Majesty, by His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, and by His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias; and ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington as soon as practicable.     
Conc.1  IN FAITH WHEREOF, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Convention in quadruplicate and have hereunto affixed their seals.  CONC   
Conc.2  DONE at Washington the seventh day of July, in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleven.     
Please cite as:
Data from Ronald B. Mitchell. 2002-2017. International Environmental Agreements Database Project (Version 2014.3).
Available at: http://iea-archive.uoregon.edu/
Date accessed: 29 March 2017